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Introduction

Portions of this book were finished in 2015. Had this chapter been written five years earlier, the general tone regarding fisheries would have been decidedly pessimistic: fisheries worldwide were being rapidly depleted, in spite of conservation efforts discussed below.

However, thus far into the 21st century the world has benefitted from very rapid growth of fish farming in the U.S., Nordic Nations, China, Thailand, Malaysia and Chile. Modern fish farming includes saltwater varieties popular in the diets of people in both developed and emerging nations. If the fish farming industry continues to mature and spread to more countries, future editions of this book may contain a very short chapter on fisheries. Then, what we now view as natural capital will be essentially manufactured capital. It is still too early to celebrate this achievement. Farmed fish may prove to be susceptible to diseases not common to fish in the wild. Fish farming also involves some environmental risks. And some farmed fish do not satisfy human palates as well as the same fish caught in the wild. For example, this was apparently the case for much of farmed salmon from the U.S. and the Nordic countries early on: the farmed fish carried a distinctly different taste. However, the industry seems to believe that this problem will disappear as time passes.

For the time being, at least, the rapid rise of fish farming has materially helped in reduced depletion and stress on natural fisheries. In any case, the world’s natural fisheries remain as an important source of natural capital for emerging and developed nations and will be treated as such. (Details on the farmed fish industry are provided later on in this Chapter).

Significance of fisheries

Fisheries involve issues of resource sustainability that have been largely overlooked for far too long. Abuse of this source of natural capital has worldwide implications, especially as fish pertain to the diet and employment opportunities of poor people in poor nations.

World trade in seafood of all kinds totaled $136 billion in 2013 excluding farm-grown fish. "Unchartered Waters”, Financial Times, Nov. 21, 2014. Worldwide, in 2006 200 million people were employed in fisheries. In poor countries almost 95% are employed in small scale fishing. Worldwide, 2.9 billion people depended on fish for more than 14% of their protein. 20% of the world’s people, mostly in the poorest nations rely on fish as their primary source of protein.

As has been the case for water resources, awareness of fishery resources issues only began to become widespread after 1950. Why? In 1950 only 50% of the world’s fisheries were fully exploited. By 1980, this figure rose to 60%, and by 2008, 80% of fish stocks had been fully exploited. The population of certain highly prized fish species has fallen precipitously. For example the number of Pacific Bluefin tuna in 2012 was but one fourth that of 1995, and one seventh that of the mid-sixties. By 2010 the situation for bluefins had become serious.

Questions & Answers

Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
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Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
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Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
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how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Economic development for the 21st century. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11747/1.12
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