<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
Illustration shows a human foot. The metatarsals are five long, thin bones that connect to the phalanges.
This drawing shows the bones of the human foot and ankle, including the metatarsals and the phalanges.

Evolution connection

Evolution of body design for locomotion on land

The transition of vertebrates onto land required a number of changes in body design, as movement on land presents a number of challenges for animals that are adapted to movement in water. The buoyancy of water provides a certain amount of lift, and a common form of movement by fish is lateral undulations of the entire body. This back and forth movement pushes the body against the water, creating forward movement. In most fish, the muscles of paired fins attach to girdles within the body, allowing for some control of locomotion. As certain fish began moving onto land, they retained their lateral undulation form of locomotion (anguilliform). However, instead of pushing against water, their fins or flippers became points of contact with the ground, around which they rotated their bodies.

The effect of gravity and the lack of buoyancy on land meant that body weight was suspended on the limbs, leading to increased strengthening and ossification of the limbs. The effect of gravity also required changes to the axial skeleton. Lateral undulations of land animal vertebral columns cause torsional strain. A firmer, more ossified vertebral column became common in terrestrial tetrapods because it reduces strain while providing the strength needed to support the body’s weight. In later tetrapods, the vertebrae began allowing for vertical motion rather than lateral flexion. Another change in the axial skeleton was the loss of a direct attachment between the pectoral girdle and the head. This reduced the jarring to the head caused by the impact of the limbs on the ground. The vertebrae of the neck also evolved to allow movement of the head independently of the body.

The appendicular skeleton of land animals is also different from aquatic animals. The shoulders attach to the pectoral girdle through muscles and connective tissue, thus reducing the jarring of the skull. Because of a lateral undulating vertebral column, in early tetrapods, the limbs were splayed out to the side and movement occurred by performing “push-ups.” The vertebrae of these animals had to move side-to-side in a similar manner to fish and reptiles. This type of motion requires large muscles to move the limbs toward the midline; it was almost like walking while doing push-ups, and it is not an efficient use of energy. Later tetrapods have their limbs placed under their bodies, so that each stride requires less force to move forward. This resulted in decreased adductor muscle size and an increased range of motion of the scapulae. This also restricts movement primarily to one plane, creating forward motion rather than moving the limbs upward as well as forward. The femur and humerus were also rotated, so that the ends of the limbs and digits were pointed forward, in the direction of motion, rather than out to the side. By placement underneath the body, limbs can swing forward like a pendulum to produce a stride that is more efficient for moving over land.

Section summary

The three types of skeleton designs are hydrostatic skeletons, exoskeletons, and endoskeletons. A hydrostatic skeleton is formed by a fluid-filled compartment held under hydrostatic pressure; movement is created by the muscles producing pressure on the fluid. An exoskeleton is a hard external skeleton that protects the outer surface of an organism and enables movement through muscles attached on the inside. An endoskeleton is an internal skeleton composed of hard, mineralized tissue that also enables movement by attachment to muscles. The human skeleton is an endoskeleton that is composed of the axial and appendicular skeleton. The axial skeleton is composed of the bones of the skull, ossicles of the ear, hyoid bone, vertebral column, and ribcage. The skull consists of eight cranial bones and 14 facial bones. Six bones make up the ossicles of the middle ear, while the hyoid bone is located in the neck under the mandible. The vertebral column contains 26 bones, and it surrounds and protects the spinal cord. The thoracic cage consists of the sternum, ribs, thoracic vertebrae, and costal cartilages. The appendicular skeleton is made up of the limbs of the upper and lower limbs. The pectoral girdle is composed of the clavicles and the scapulae. The upper limb contains 30 bones in the arm, the forearm, and the hand. The pelvic girdle attaches the lower limbs to the axial skeleton. The lower limb includes the bones of the thigh, the leg, and the foot.

Questions & Answers

what is cell?
V.S.Nikhil Reply
The smallest structure and functional unit
vinod
Hydra reproduce through which process
Saint Reply
which is smallest organ in our body
Techi
pineal gland
Himangshu
Yh in the ears...
Mozua
why you hand plam is sweating in everytime
Techi
who is the father of mycology
Sagar Reply
Heinrich Anton de Bary
Delissa
describe the similarities and differences between cytokinesis mechanism found in animal cells versus in plant cells
hiro Reply
what is life?
Techi
life is the existantce of indvidual human or animal.
R0se
thanks
Techi
are humans beings considered to have the eukaryotic cells
success Reply
yes.....
Delissa
eukaryotes are organisms that possess cells with a nucleus enclosed in a membrane, humans, and all complex organisms are eukaryotes.
Delissa
so humans and animals also have cell membranes.... cause I did this test prep and they said plants...I just want to be sure
success
and thank you for your reply it was helpful👍✌
success
eu= "perfect", "good", karyon= nut, amound, nucleus
Tiago
you're welcome. Plants are also eukaryotes.
Delissa
plants, like animals, possess a nucleus bound by a membrane.
Delissa
similarities and differences between cytokinesis mechanism found in animal cell vs cell division
Raymark Reply
what is the name of a male flower?
Ikeomu Reply
staminate means flower containing only stamen
Falak
what is the definition of evolution in a population?
Homero Reply
the slow changing of a species to adapt to any changes in the environment or how it feeds/hunts. im not good at explaining things lol.
Eclipse
the organ which is sensitive to light in euglena
Fatimah Reply
the organ which is sensitive to light in euglena is
Fatimah
all chlorophyll containing motile cells are sensitive to light
Himangshu
there is no more other chapter
Sandeep Reply
Give tow examples for nutritional deficiency Diseases-
Singampalli Reply
How does a plant cell look like
Sang Reply
in a sleepers form
David
what do you mean ? I could not understand
Gul
they have a regular shape and a large vacoule
Fatimah
I thought it looked like rectangle
Abrahán
a stage in mitosis wherein in spindle fibers begin to shorten to pu the sister chromatids away from each other towards the opposite ends of the cell
Earl Reply
a stage in interphase where chromosome s are duplicated
Earl
What is biodiversity
Sp Reply
Hmm
Hele
Name two secretions of Golgi apparatus
Daniel Reply

Get the best Biology course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Biology' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask