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v ( t ) = v max sin t T , size 12{v \( t \) = - v rSub { size 8{"max"} } "sin" left ( { {2π`t} over {T} } right )} {}

where v max = X / T = X k / m size 12{v rSub { size 8{"max"} } =2πX/T=X sqrt {k/m} } {} . The object has zero velocity at maximum displacement—for example, v = 0 size 12{v=0} {} when t = 0 size 12{t=0} {} , and at that time x = X size 12{x=X} {} . The minus sign in the first equation for v ( t ) size 12{v \( t \) } {} gives the correct direction for the velocity. Just after the start of the motion, for instance, the velocity is negative because the system is moving back toward the equilibrium point. Finally, we can get an expression for acceleration using Newton’s second law. [Then we have x ( t ) , v ( t ) , t , size 12{x \( t \) ,v \( t \) ,t} {} and a ( t ) size 12{a \( t \) } {} , the quantities needed for kinematics and a description of simple harmonic motion.] According to Newton’s second law, the acceleration is a = F / m = kx / m size 12{a=F/m= ital "kx"/m} {} . So, a ( t ) size 12{a \( t \) } {} is also a cosine function:

a ( t ) = kX m cos t T . size 12{a \( t \) = - { { ital "kX"} over {m} } " cos " { {2π t} over {T} } } {}

Hence, a ( t ) size 12{a \( t \) } {} is directly proportional to and in the opposite direction to x ( t ) .

[link] shows the simple harmonic motion of an object on a spring and presents graphs of x ( t ) , v ( t ), size 12{x \( t \) ,v \( t \) `} {} and a ( t ) size 12{`a \( t \) } {} versus time.

In the figure at the top there are ten springboards with objects of different mass values tied to them. This makes some springs highly compressed some as loosely stretched and some at equilibrium, which are shown as red spherical shaped. Alongside the figure there is a scale given for different amplitude values as x equal to positive X, zero and negative X. the upward and downward pointing arrows are shown with a few springboards.  In the second figure there are three graphs. The first graph shows distance covered in form of a sine wave starting from a point x units on positive y-axis. The height of the wave above x-axis is marked as amplitude. The gap between two consecutive crests is marked as T. Below first graph there is another graph showing velocity in form of a sine wave starting from the origin downward. In the third graph below the second one, acceleration is shown in the form of sine wave starting from x units on the negative y-axis upward. In the last figure three position of a spring are shown. The first position shows the unstretched length of a spring pendulum. A hand is holding the bob of the pendulum. In the second position the equilibrium position of the spring and bob is shown. This position is lower the first one. In the third case the up and down oscillations of the spring pendulum are shown. The bob is moving x units in upward and downward directions alternatively.
Graphs of x ( t ) , v ( t ) , size 12{x \( t \) ,v \( t \) `} {} and a ( t ) size 12{`a \( t \) } {} versus t size 12{t} {} for the motion of an object on a spring. The net force on the object can be described by Hooke’s law, and so the object undergoes simple harmonic motion. Note that the initial position has the vertical displacement at its maximum value X size 12{X} {} ; v size 12{v} {} is initially zero and then negative as the object moves down; and the initial acceleration is negative, back toward the equilibrium position and becomes zero at that point.

The most important point here is that these equations are mathematically straightforward and are valid for all simple harmonic motion. They are very useful in visualizing waves associated with simple harmonic motion, including visualizing how waves add with one another.

Suppose you pluck a banjo string. You hear a single note that starts out loud and slowly quiets over time. Describe what happens to the sound waves in terms of period, frequency and amplitude as the sound decreases in volume.

Frequency and period remain essentially unchanged. Only amplitude decreases as volume decreases.

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A babysitter is pushing a child on a swing. At the point where the swing reaches x size 12{x} {} , where would the corresponding point on a wave of this motion be located?

x size 12{x} {} is the maximum deformation, which corresponds to the amplitude of the wave. The point on the wave would either be at the very top or the very bottom of the curve.

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Phet explorations: masses and springs

A realistic mass and spring laboratory. Hang masses from springs and adjust the spring stiffness and damping. You can even slow time. Transport the lab to different planets. A chart shows the kinetic, potential, and thermal energy for each spring.

Masses and Springs

Section summary

  • Simple harmonic motion is oscillatory motion for a system that can be described only by Hooke’s law. Such a system is also called a simple harmonic oscillator.
  • Maximum displacement is the amplitude X size 12{X} {} . The period T size 12{T} {} and frequency f size 12{f} {} of a simple harmonic oscillator are given by

    T = m k size 12{T=2π sqrt { { {m} over {k} } } } {} and f = 1 k m , where m size 12{m} {} is the mass of the system.

  • Displacement in simple harmonic motion as a function of time is given by x ( t ) = X cos t T . size 12{x \( t \) =X"cos" { {2π`t} over {T} } } {}
  • The velocity is given by v ( t ) = v max sin t T , where v max = k / m X .
  • The acceleration is found to be a ( t ) = kX m cos t T . size 12{a \( t \) = - { { ital "kX"} over {m} } " cos " { {2π t} over {T} } } {}

Questions & Answers

This actually is about ...well you can study the material available and you can ask your doubts here
Bibekbir Reply
Well I didn't pay any fee to 'join' this app
Bibekbir Reply
ok thanks
Sharukh
so what's this all about
bilyaminu
state Hooke's lawyer
Israel Reply
hello
Sharukh
how much is the fee?
Sharukh
fee for what?
Arif
Hook s law
Sharukh
for joining this app
Sharukh
and yea about that hypothesis thing....For electrons and photons and other microscopic particles ...The dual nature applicable but Macroscopic object follows De Broglie's Hypothesis or Theory
Bibekbir Reply
Duh !! And guys I can't see any conversation! All I can guess what is going on ,on board is through notifications ! otherwise this screen is blank ! Does anybody know what is happening ?
Bibekbir
I am facing problem ....I am not able to view the latest conversation in group discussion. ..its just showing a blank page even after reinstalling the app...although the Internet connection is also working
Bibekbir
its ok
Salima
Therefore it was summarised that electrons or any particle for instance (*De Broglie's hypothesis ) shows Dual nature
Bibekbir Reply
ok i get it but it is still a hypothesis
Salima
can i ask qusetions sometimes
Salima
yup it was as if electrons knew they were being watched ...
Bibekbir Reply
Which I personally find very creepy !
Bibekbir
Which I personally find very creepy !
Bibekbir
it is creepy
Salima
Which confused scientists so much ...so tried the same experiment using a microscope this time to watch the motion of the electrons...and surprisingly this time two slits were formed. !
Bibekbir Reply
really
Salima
Well what common sense says is ...There will be two slits on photographic plate...
Bibekbir Reply
But what was observed was totally unexpected. ..There were wave like imprint on the photographic plate....like water waves...
Bibekbir
ok then...
Salima
Well to explain the dual nature of light ...We need to study Young's double slit experiment .In which,.. okay I want you to imagine I have gun loaded with electrons. ..and before me I have this sheet with two slit in it and behind this sheet a photographic plate. .....what do you think my observation will be ?
Bibekbir Reply
can't say anything
Salima
Well light can exist as wave as well as a particle....There is something called Dual nature of light
Bibekbir Reply
yes you got it
Ahmad
i know about it but how is it possible
Salima
it depends upon given condition to photon
Ahmad
here is answer about that
Bashir
here is no answer about that
Bashir
Mr. Bashir there is no question that have no answer
Salima
ok
Bashir
Why the Big Bang create more matter then antimatter?
Salima Reply
there are a few theories but it is still mostly a mystery
James
Is it possible that the whole concept of antimatter is wrong after all its just theories
Salima
no its not theory
ghulam
but there is no strong evidence about it they are trying to make antimatter what if they are searching for, turns out something different other then antimatter
Salima
half of physics does not consists of the strong evidence
ghulam
salima are you pakistani ?
ghulam
yeah
Salima
I read in class 10th
Salima
And i am not talking about evidence
Salima
Actually there is an evidence .....its called cosmic inflation. ..
Bibekbir
can you explain
Salima
sure
Bibekbir
It's like this....okay imagine for a second that all the galaxies and stars ...and planet with all their energies vanishes
Bibekbir
please explain
Salima
even the black holes dark matter and dark energies also vanishes...
Bibekbir
Can anyone tell me what should be left ?
Bibekbir
ok
Salima
nothing but space
Salima
You will say an empty void ...but that's not the case after this called universe mapping we got this an active energetic background ! which was expanding at a very fast rate
Bibekbir
Now if something is expanding at a speed of nearly speed of light !! then it must have stated from a very small sized object and there you have big bang theory
Bibekbir
yeah i get it
Salima
You will say a void right ? But that was not what mathematical calculations said ....even there is something called universe mapping which mapped the energies in this background. ... and we found that this universe as whole itself was increasing with the speed faster than light !!!
Bibekbir
faster then light!!!
Salima
interesting question. would love a proper explanation.
Beatrax
questions are always intersting only if you know the answer
Salima
or understand the question
Salima
yup faster than light ...now here some people will ask that Einstein had claimed nothing can be faster than light right ? ....but the Universe doesn't count in 'nothing ' and everything is in universe including light ...
Bibekbir
Beatrax do you have a question?
Bibekbir
universe is expending right so there must be a limit for its expension and after that would it be possible that it start contracting again?
Salima
Well we simply don't know to what universe is expanding to .....so here comes string theory....which is story of another time though. ... yes there is a theory though which claims that the universe will again collapse in a small mass just as it started in big bang
Bibekbir
so we can say that big bang will happen again
Salima
Let's come back to your question on antimatter right ? ....well we simply don't have a lot of information about anti matter...though there is a theory which claims that at the time of big bang antimatter was made with matter ....but not in the same quantity. ..
Bibekbir
Because if it were to happen .....The matter won't simply exist ...but we know it does exist....
Bibekbir
there must be some reason that why it creat more matter
Salima
and no the concept of antimatter is NOT wrong!!! Don't ever say that !!! Because some scientists spent their whole life studying on this .....and you will be surprised to know that there are antimatter found on the exosphere of Earth.
Bibekbir
and Ghulam you wrong there Bro. ..70% of physics is mathematics.....which language of universe....which is kinda right every time. ..Einstein gave all his theory solely based on thoughts and mathematics...
Bibekbir
really how is it possible was it natural i know that they are making antimatter but i don't believe it
Salima
And before something become a solid point ... ..It has to go through a long process of scientists in panels and all those stuff. ....and surprisingly it's all observable phenomenons....so yeah physics is actually defination of logic....mind that ..
Bibekbir
Do anyone have any question? feel free to ask ...
Bibekbir
yeah i also think that physics is the basic of all the universe and every thing we see in it
Salima
oh yeah i will
Salima
Yeah we kinda don't know....a lot on this ....moreover....I have not been keeping tap on this topic....so maybe they have got some stuff up their sleeves but I just don't know...
Bibekbir
what is actully light photons or electromagnetic waves
Salima
Well main topic which I focus on is dark matter dark energy and exoplanets. ..
Bibekbir
and maybe little bit of quantum mechanics
Bibekbir
ah there good question !! very good question! !
Bibekbir
are you a student of physics and where are you from
Salima
thanks
Salima
okay now ....We don't only have proton electron and neutron duh ! that's what students are taught!
Bibekbir
Actually from CERN till now 35 subatomic particles have been found !!!
Bibekbir
and now let's come back to your question about what is light photons....I guess you all from 12th grade am I right ?
Bibekbir
oh whats the 35 subatomic particals
Salima
no actully 10th grade
Salima
What? I am actually umm. ...In my first year of college ....Sem1 so yea I am 18 years old....and I am doing undergraduate course in Maths Chemistry and Physics ... I am from India ! Duh ! I thought my name would give away my nationality !
Bibekbir
There are a lot of those subatomic particles like higgs boson particle is one of them
Bibekbir
oh
Salima
Not a lot 35
Bibekbir
i am physics professor any problm dear friend
ghulam
oh what about my question
Salima
Salima you know a lot according to your age. ...don't worry you have a while chapter in 11th and 12th physics in electromagnetic waves and light photon ....
Bibekbir
*whole
Bibekbir
i am 16 years old
Salima
Mr. Ghulam No hard feelings I just said what I felt right . And I just love physics a lot can't just read any bad comment about it.Again I said what I felt right. If you are offended by anything I said Sir,then I am sorry . I am not here offend anyone,.just give my honest answers andwhatever I study
Bibekbir
Mr.Ghulam are you a Pakistani
Salima
why physics is more difficult for commerce student?
Bashir
i am a fsc pre medical student
Sameer
hello
James
am james
James
physics is not difficult but when you don't have any interest it seems difficult
Salima
James can you tell us about big bang theory?
Bashir
Bashir you can read it in above comments
Salima
Yes but is very necessary for us but how to understand that cause our direction is another side
Bashir
hi Bibekbir are you there
Salima
stay on your direction Mr. Bashir
Salima
Yes
Bashir
can anyone answer my question?
Salima
Yes can but ..
Bashir
but..
Salima
i just want answer not "but"
Salima
Ok you can ask
Bashir
?
Bashir
what light actually photon or electromagnetic waves
Salima
Both
Ahmad
how? can a partical be wave at the same time
Salima
yes photon depend upon condition
Ahmad
photon is the energy packet ..light consist of photons in the form of EM waves
ghulam
What is the difference between potential difference and electromotive force
Neba Reply
basically potentiometer is series circuit or parallel circuit?
muhammad Reply
What is half-life
Godwin Reply
the life in which half of the radioactive element decay
Arif
what is fluid
Anthony Reply
anything that flows is Liquid.
prakash
a substance that has no specific shape
Saleemulhaq
Practice Key Terms 3

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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