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Visualize how mRNA splicing happens by watching the process in action in this video .

Control of rna stability

Before the mRNA leaves the nucleus, it is given two protective "caps" that prevent the end of the strand from degrading during its journey. The 5' cap    , which is placed on the 5' end of the mRNA, is usually composed of a methylated guanosine triphosphate molecule (GTP). The poly-A tail    , which is attached to the 3' end, is usually composed of a series of adenine nucleotides. Once the RNA is transported to the cytoplasm, the length of time that the RNA resides there can be controlled. Each RNA molecule has a defined lifespan and decays at a specific rate. This rate of decay can influence how much protein is in the cell. If the decay rate is increased, the RNA will not exist in the cytoplasm as long, shortening the time for translation to occur. Conversely, if the rate of decay is decreased, the RNA molecule will reside in the cytoplasm longer and more protein can be translated. This rate of decay is referred to as the RNA stability. If the RNA is stable, it will be detected for longer periods of time in the cytoplasm.

Binding of proteins to the RNA can influence its stability. Proteins, called RNA-binding proteins , or RBPs, can bind to the regions of the RNA just upstream or downstream of the protein-coding region. These regions in the RNA that are not translated into protein are called the untranslated regions , or UTRs. They are not introns (those have been removed in the nucleus). Rather, these are regions that regulate mRNA localization, stability, and protein translation. The region just before the protein-coding region is called the 5' UTR    , whereas the region after the coding region is called the 3' UTR    ( [link] ). The binding of RBPs to these regions can increase or decrease the stability of an RNA molecule, depending on the specific RBP that binds.

In the mature RNA molecule, exons are spliced together between the 5' and 3' untranslated regions. A 5' cap is attached to the 5' untranslated region, and a poly-A tail is attached to the 3' untranslated region. RNA-binding proteins associate with the 5' and 3' untranslated regions.
The protein-coding region of mRNA is flanked by 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs). The presence of RNA-binding proteins at the 5' or 3' UTR influences the stability of the RNA molecule.

Rna stability and micrornas

In addition to RBPs that bind to and control (increase or decrease) RNA stability, other elements called microRNAs can bind to the RNA molecule. These microRNAs , or miRNAs, are short RNA molecules that are only 21–24 nucleotides in length. The miRNAs are made in the nucleus as longer pre-miRNAs. These pre-miRNAs are chopped into mature miRNAs by a protein called dicer    . Like transcription factors and RBPs, mature miRNAs recognize a specific sequence and bind to the RNA; however, miRNAs also associate with a ribonucleoprotein complex called the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) . RISC binds along with the miRNA to degrade the target mRNA. Together, miRNAs and the RISC complex rapidly destroy the RNA molecule.

Section summary

Post-transcriptional control can occur at any stage after transcription, including RNA splicing, nuclear shuttling, and RNA stability. Once RNA is transcribed, it must be processed to create a mature RNA that is ready to be translated. This involves the removal of introns that do not code for protein. Spliceosomes bind to the signals that mark the exon/intron border to remove the introns and ligate the exons together. Once this occurs, the RNA is mature and can be translated. RNA is created and spliced in the nucleus, but needs to be transported to the cytoplasm to be translated. RNA is transported to the cytoplasm through the nuclear pore complex. Once the RNA is in the cytoplasm, the length of time it resides there before being degraded, called RNA stability, can also be altered to control the overall amount of protein that is synthesized. The RNA stability can be increased, leading to longer residency time in the cytoplasm, or decreased, leading to shortened time and less protein synthesis. RNA stability is controlled by RNA-binding proteins (RPBs) and microRNAs (miRNAs). These RPBs and miRNAs bind to the 5' UTR or the 3' UTR of the RNA to increase or decrease RNA stability. Depending on the RBP, the stability can be increased or decreased significantly; however, miRNAs always decrease stability and promote decay.

Questions & Answers

Simple term of science
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Phathu Reply
biology is the study of living organisms, divided into many specialized fields that cover their morphology, physiology, anatomy, behavior, origin, and distribution.
The study of all aspects of life. The study of all living organisms (such as animal cells and plant cells) in greater detail (their structure and how they function). It's a very broad science.
what is prokaryotic
Bhaskar Reply
what is pathogens
transistion metals....
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Why study ecology
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what is evolution
Elia Reply
Is the gradual change of something it can be either organisms
which of the following statements about the moss life cycle is false?
Israel Reply
posterior lobe of pitutary contains what?
MR Reply
What if vincristine and colchicibe disrupt mitosis by binding to tubulin
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A plant in the understory of a forest displays a segmented stem and slender leaves arranged in a whorl. It is probably....
Israel Reply
How did the development of a vascular system contribute to the increase in size of plants?
If a flower lacked a megasporangium and microsporangium, what type of gametes would not form?
Seed plants are.. A. all homosporous B. mostly homosporous with some heterosporous C. mostly heterosporous with some homosporous D. all heterosporous
Besides the seed, what other major structure diminishes a plant's reliance on water for reproduction?
what role did the adaptations of seed and pollen play in the development and expansion of seed plants?
Some cycads are considered endangered species and their trade is severely restricted. Customs officials stop suspected smugglers who claim that the plants in their possession are palm trees, not cycads. How would a botanist distinguish between the two types of plants?
What are the two structures that allow angiosperms to be the dominant form of plant life in most terrestrial ecosystems?
how are carbohydrates,proteins and fats formed from triose phosphate
fonyuy Reply
Why does the actin filament only move in one direction? Describe in great detail.
Lashonda Reply
Two events happen when calcium binds to troponin.
which of the following statements about plant division is false?
Israel Reply
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What are the events that occur in each phase of interphase
Hazey Reply
what is photosynthesis
Victor Reply
The process plants use to convert sunlight into food (energy).
Some other organisms use
types of photosynthesis
ps1 and ps2

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Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
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