<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Calculating the slow acceleration of trains and their wheels

Large freight trains accelerate very slowly. Suppose one such train accelerates from rest, giving its 0.350-m-radius wheels an angular acceleration of 0 . 250 rad/s 2 size 12{0 "." "250"`"rad/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} . After the wheels have made 200 revolutions (assume no slippage): (a) How far has the train moved down the track? (b) What are the final angular velocity of the wheels and the linear velocity of the train?

Strategy

In part (a), we are asked to find x size 12{x} {} , and in (b) we are asked to find ω size 12{ω} {} and v size 12{v} {} . We are given the number of revolutions θ size 12{θ} {} , the radius of the wheels r size 12{r} {} , and the angular acceleration α size 12{α} {} .

Solution for (a)

The distance x size 12{x} {} is very easily found from the relationship between distance and rotation angle:

θ = x r . size 12{θ= { {x} over {r} } } {}

Solving this equation for x size 12{x} {} yields

x = rθ. size 12{x=rθ.} {}

Before using this equation, we must convert the number of revolutions into radians, because we are dealing with a relationship between linear and rotational quantities:

θ = 200 rev rad 1 rev = 1257 rad . size 12{θ= left ("200"" rev" right ) { {2π" rad"} over {"1 rev"} } ="1257"" rad"} {}

Now we can substitute the known values into x = size 12{x=rθ} {} to find the distance the train moved down the track:

x = = 0.350 m 1257 rad = 440 m . size 12{x=rθ= left (0 "." "350"`m right ) left ("1257"" rad" right )="440"" m"} {}

Solution for (b)

We cannot use any equation that incorporates t to find ω , because the equation would have at least two unknown values. The equation ω 2 = ω 0 2 + 2 αθ will work, because we know the values for all variables except ω :

ω 2 = ω 0 2 + 2 αθ

Taking the square root of this equation and entering the known values gives

ω = 0 + 2 ( 0 . 250  rad/s 2 ) ( 1257  rad ) 1 / 2 = 25.1 rad/s. alignl { stack { size 12{ω= left [0+2 \( 0 "." "250"" rad/s" rSup { size 8{2} } \) \( "1257"" rad" \) right ]rSup { size 8{1/2} } "." } {} # ="25" "." 1" rad/s" {}} } {}

We can find the linear velocity of the train, v size 12{v} {} , through its relationship to ω size 12{ω} {} :

v = = 0.350 m 25.1 rad/s = 8.77 m/s . size 12{v=rω= left (0 "." "350"" m" right ) left ("25" "." 1" rad/s" right )=8 "." "77"" m/s"} {}

Discussion

The distance traveled is fairly large and the final velocity is fairly slow (just under 32 km/h).

There is translational motion even for something spinning in place, as the following example illustrates. [link] shows a fly on the edge of a rotating microwave oven plate. The example below calculates the total distance it travels.

The figure shows a fly that has landed on the rotating plate of the microwave. The direction of rotation of the plate, omega, is counterclockwise and is shown with an arrow.
The image shows a microwave plate. The fly makes revolutions while the food is heated (along with the fly).

Calculating the distance traveled by a fly on the edge of a microwave oven plate

A person decides to use a microwave oven to reheat some lunch. In the process, a fly accidentally flies into the microwave and lands on the outer edge of the rotating plate and remains there. If the plate has a radius of 0.15 m and rotates at 6.0 rpm, calculate the total distance traveled by the fly during a 2.0-min cooking period. (Ignore the start-up and slow-down times.)

Strategy

First, find the total number of revolutions θ size 12{θ} {} , and then the linear distance x size 12{x} {} traveled. θ = ω ¯ t size 12{θ= {overline {ωt}} } {} can be used to find θ size 12{θ} {} because ω - size 12{ { bar {ω}}} {} is given to be 6.0 rpm.

Solution

Entering known values into θ = ω ¯ t size 12{θ= {overline {ωt}} } {} gives

θ = ω - t = 6.0 rpm 2.0 min = 12 rev .

As always, it is necessary to convert revolutions to radians before calculating a linear quantity like x size 12{x} {} from an angular quantity like θ size 12{θ} {} :

θ = 12 rev 2 π rad 1 rev = 75 .4 rad. size 12{θ= left ("12"" rev" right ) left ( { {2π" rad"} over {"1 rev"} } right )="75" "." 4" rad"} {}

Now, using the relationship between x size 12{x} {} and θ size 12{θ} {} , we can determine the distance traveled:

x = = 0 . 15  m 75 . 4  rad = 11  m . size 12{x=rθ= left (0 "." "15"" m" right ) left ("75" "." 4" rad" right )="11" "." 3" m"} {}

Discussion

Quite a trip (if it survives)! Note that this distance is the total distance traveled by the fly. Displacement is actually zero for complete revolutions because they bring the fly back to its original position. The distinction between total distance traveled and displacement was first noted in One-Dimensional Kinematics .

Rotational kinematics has many useful relationships, often expressed in equation form. Are these relationships laws of physics or are they simply descriptive? (Hint: the same question applies to linear kinematics.)

Rotational kinematics (just like linear kinematics) is descriptive and does not represent laws of nature. With kinematics, we can describe many things to great precision but kinematics does not consider causes. For example, a large angular acceleration describes a very rapid change in angular velocity without any consideration of its cause.

Section summary

  • Kinematics is the description of motion.
  • The kinematics of rotational motion describes the relationships among rotation angle, angular velocity, angular acceleration, and time.
  • Starting with the four kinematic equations we developed in the One-Dimensional Kinematics , we can derive the four rotational kinematic equations (presented together with their translational counterparts) seen in [link] .
  • In these equations, the subscript 0 denotes initial values ( x 0 size 12{x rSub { size 8{0} } } {} and t 0 size 12{t rSub { size 8{0} } } {} are initial values), and the average angular velocity ω - size 12{ { bar {ω}}} {} and average velocity v - size 12{ { bar {v}}} {} are defined as follows:
    ω ¯ = ω 0 + ω 2  and  v ¯ = v 0 + v 2 . size 12{ {overline {ω}} = { {ω rSub { size 8{0} } +ω} over {2} } " and " {overline {v}} = { {v rSub { size 8{0} } +v} over {2} } " " \( "constant "α, a \) } {}

Problems&Exercises

With the aid of a string, a gyroscope is accelerated from rest to 32 rad/s in 0.40 s.

(a) What is its angular acceleration in rad/s 2 ?

(b) How many revolutions does it go through in the process?

(a) 80 rad/s 2 size 12{80 rad/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}

(b) 1.0 rev

A gyroscope slows from an initial rate of 32.0 rad/s at a rate of 0 . 700  rad/s 2 size 12{0 "." "700"`"rad/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} .

(a) How long does it take to come to rest?

(b) How many revolutions does it make before stopping?

(a) 45.7 s

(b) 116 rev

During a very quick stop, a car decelerates at 7 . 00  m/s 2 size 12{7 "." "00"`"m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} .

(a) What is the angular acceleration of its 0.280-m-radius tires, assuming they do not slip on the pavement?

(b) How many revolutions do the tires make before coming to rest, given their initial angular velocity is 95 . 0  rad/s size 12{"95" "." 0`"rad/s"} {} ?

(c) How long does the car take to stop completely?

(d) What distance does the car travel in this time?

(e) What was the car’s initial velocity?

(f) Do the values obtained seem reasonable, considering that this stop happens very quickly?

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Mueller Reply
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
QuizOver.com Reply
Practice Key Terms 1

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Unit 8 - rotational motion. OpenStax CNX. Feb 22, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11970/1.1
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Unit 8 - rotational motion' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask