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Institutional deposit mandates

In addition to funder mandates, there has been a gradual increase in institutional deposit mandates. Although the specifics vary by institution, institutional mandates grant an author’s host institution permission to make available the faculty member’s scholarly articles and to exercise the copyright in those articles, effectively granting the institution a non-exclusive license to distribute the article online. The Harvard Faculty of Arts and Sciences recently became the first U.S. faculty to mandate online deposit in an institutional repository. See (External Link) . However, there are currently about a dozen such mandates worldwide. See (External Link) .

Consortia sales and aggregations

Consortia sales, and participation in bundled collections and aggregations, raise a variety of issues pertaining to pricing, market coverage, primary subscription retention, and royalty or revenue allocations. The overview below should provide a society with perspective on the types of issues it is likely to confront. Other issues germane to participating in an online aggregation are described in Chapter Six.

Consortia and aggregation pricing

Participation in consortia sales programs and online journal aggregations can expand a journal’s reach into institutions that did not subscribe to the journal previously. However, for such participation to increase the journal’s net revenue it is necessary that the aggregator’s pricing protects the journal’s existing revenue base, and/or the incremental revenue generated offsets any revenue lost through discounting existing subscriptions (see “Online Access and Print Substitution,” in Chapter Four).

While publishers price titles for consortia sales in a variety of ways, there are two basic approaches:

  • Base-plus pricing, which prices a journal based on the consortium’s previous (typically print) holdings. For example, if a journal currently generates $20,000 in subscription revenue from consortium members, then the price for the entire consortium will represent an incremental percentage on top of the base amount.
  • Bundle discount pricing, which prices the offer as a volume discount off the total price of the participating titles. In this case, an aggregator offers groups of titles—often by subject category—at a discount, based on the number of journals in the bundle. The bundles sometimes include both a publisher’s own titles, as well as those licensed from other publishers, including societies.

Base-plus pricing is conservative in protecting a journal’s existing revenue, although the approach may forgo incremental revenue in the interest of that protection. Further, as it is based on a consortium’s holdings at a given time, such a pricing approach is inherently transitional and becomes unworkable as the collection or consortium grows. Dryburgh (2004) analyzes pricing approaches for journal aggregations based on interviews with eight publishers.

A bundled discount approach, as it does not reference the consortium’s previous holdings and spending level, may place a journal’s existing institutional revenue base at some risk. The extent of that risk will typically depend on the basis for the revenue allocation for the bundle (see below), as well as any protections or guarantees that the publisher offers to mitigate a journal’s initial risk in order to encourage participation.

Publishers typically combine other pricing criteria—including the number of participating institutions, total FTEs, and institution type—with these two basic approaches. Most publishers offer multiple pricing options for aggregations, suggesting continuing experimentation with consortia pricing models. For a breakdown of current consortium pricing practices by nonprofit publishers, see Cox and Cox (2008), 52-55.

Revenue allocation

Revenue allocations to individual titles from bundled sales are often based on usage, volume of content, individual title price (decreasingly), or some combination. The volume of content a journal makes available to the bundle helps drive the perceived value of the bundle over all (for example, in terms of number of articles or volume years in the collection). Using individual title prices has become less prevalent; although it protects journals with high prices, it doesn’t necessary align with the value-in-use perceived in the collection. The approach used will reflect the particular composition of each bundle, as well as the policies and approach of each publisher or aggregator.

In the case of a mature or niche journal, any aggregator claims to generating revenue from new core market subscriptions should be treated cautiously. If the aggregation is being offered to a specific, well-defined market not previously reached by the journal (for example, corporate or public library sales), or if the consortial market comprises institutions of a type not previously reached by the journal (e.g., small colleges or international institutions), then the effect—and the implications—are largely the same as those for tiered pricing. If a journal is relatively new and does not need to protect an existing print subscription base, the society may be in a position to be more aggressive in reaching markets.

Although a society is not obligated to include its journal in consortial deals or aggregations, many commercial publishers will encourage such participation, as the institutional market continues to exhibit a preference for consortial purchases of online journal aggregations. Whether an aggregation arrangement represents an equitable deal for the society inevitably depends on a host of variables that can only be assessed on a individual basis.

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
I know this work
salma
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
Abhi
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
hmm
Abhi
is it a question of log
Abhi
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Abhi
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salma
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
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Sherica
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Sherica
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Tamia
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Uday
hi
salma
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
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Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
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Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Transitioning a society journal online: a guide to financial and strategic issues. OpenStax CNX. Aug 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11222/1.1
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