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Response of the leftmost array

Now consider the leftmost pair of images where the two array elements are relatively close together. The wavenumber response of this array has a pair ofnull points about midway between the center and either end, as indicated by the blue and black colors. This is the wavenumber for which the element spacing isan exact multiple of one-half of the wavelength, causing the elements to move in equal but opposite directions in response to the wave motion. Thus, the outputfrom one element cancels the output from the other element producing zero voltage in the sum.

This same pair of images shows high responses at either end as indicated by the red areas. This is the wavenumber for which the element spacing is an exactmultiple of one wavelength.

The Nyquist folding wavenumber

If this were a frequency spectrum analysis, we would say that the end points are at the Nyquist folding frequency, which is one-half of the samplingfrequency. Thus, we can say that in the wavenumber domain, the end points on the two leftmostplots are at the Nyquist folding wavenumber, which is one-half the sampling wavenumber.

As in the frequency domain, the wavenumber spectrum is periodic. The section of the wavenumber spectrum that we are viewing represents one complete period of a periodic wavenumber spectrum ranging from minus the folding wavenumber on the left, through zero wavenumberat the center, to plus the folding wavenumber on the right.

(If you are already familiar with this sort of thing, you may have figured out that the separation between our elements in this example istwice the sampling distance that determines the location of the folding wavenumber.)

Estimating the array response from the colors

The leftmost array response shows a white area at the center.

(The white area is split by the vertical component of red axes drawn on the plot. The color of the axes has nothing to do with elevations on thesurface. I simply decided to draw them in red to make them stand out.)

This array response also shows the two black areas mentioned earlier. You can use the orange, yellow, green, and cyan locations on the calibration scale toestimate the response of the array to different wavenumber values between maximum and minimum.

Additional separation between array elements

Now consider the two images in the center of Figure 2 where the wavenumber range is the same as the wavenumber plot on the left. The elements for thisarray are separated more than the elements in the leftmost pair of images. Again, the wavenumber response for this array has a maximum value at the origin,which is at the center of the wavenumber response in the lower image. In addition, this array response has a high (red) response at four other wavenumber zones (for a total of five) , whereas the array on the left had only three red zones. Similarly, this array has a low response (black and blue) at four differentwavenumber zones whereas the array on the left has a low response at only two wavenumber zones.

Questions & Answers

so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
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Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
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Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
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Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Digital signal processing - dsp. OpenStax CNX. Jan 06, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11642/1.38
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