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severity of conflict on the vertical axis, and population ratio on the horizontal axis. A scatterplot.
The relationship between population ratio (males aged 15 to 29 years per 100 males aged over 30 years) and conflict severity (death toll per million population per year) from 1980 to 1993 on a logarithmic scale. ( Adapted from Mesquida and Wiener 1995 )

severity on the vertical axis, and population ratio on the horizontal axis. A scatterplot.
The relationship between the 1989 population ratio (males aged 15 to 29 years per 100 males aged over 30 years) and severity of conflict (total death toll per million population) from 1989 to 1993 on a logarithmic scale. (Adapted from Mesquida and Wiener 1995)

How does testosterone affect aggression?

Although this chapter focuses on ultimate causes of human warfare, it is just as important to examine proximate causes in order to fully understand the nature of human aggression, such as the relationship between testosterone and aggression. Testosterone is the sex androgen believed to be responsible for masculine characteristics, and since females tend to have lower levels of testosterone as well as aggression, testosterone is assumed to have a causal relationship with aggressive behavior. In non-human animals, the hormone is known to be related to aggressiveness, and some studies have found a weak, positive relationship between testosterone levels and aggressiveness in humans as well (Book, Starzyk, and Quinsey 2001; Archer 1991). Testosterone levels have been shown to rise in males before engaging in competitive sports (Mazur and Booth 1998), and levels of testosterone can predict aggression in preschool boys (Sanchez-Martin, Fano, Ahedo, Cardas, Brain, and Azpiroz 2000). However, since studies in humans have largely been corrlational (Archer 1991), the exact nature of the relationship of testosterone in aggressive behavior in humans remains unclear.

Resource competition theory: why do males commit coalitionary violence?

The resource competition theory of coalitionary aggression posits that individual male participants involved in coalitionary acts of aggression gain fitness through an increased access to fitness-enhancing resources, as women prefer to mate with men who are able to provide themselves and potential offspring with these resources (Buss 1989). In this model, aggressive acts may increase fitness either when resources are under the control of a competitor, wherein an aggressor would increase fitness by gaining access to the resource, or when access to a resource is threatened by a competitor, wherein an aggressor avoids a fitness loss by limiting competition (Durham 1976; Buss and Shackelford 1997). Additionally, coalitions of men may also directly compete for access to women; for example, among the Yanomamo tribes have been recorded to raid neighboring groups and kidnap reproductive-aged females (Chagnon 1983 cited by Buss and Shackelford 1997).

In order to determine whether groups of males are more likely to compete over resources or females, researchers Manson and Wrangham hypothesized that when resources are easily monopolized, conflict will likely occur over these resources. However, in circumstances where essential resources are not easily monopolized, conflict will likely occur over females themselves. To ensure that resources are in fact related to reproductive fitness, the researchers also hypothesized that in situations where resources are easily monopolized, the accumulation of wealth will be associated with polygyny , whereas when resources are not easily monopolized, polygyny will correlate with other factors, such as social ranking or ability to defend family. To test this theory, the researchers analyzed the anthropological literature for ethnographic accounts of autonomous societies dependent on hunting and foraging that at least occasionally engaged in warfare. The researchers recorded whether the societies fought over resources or females, whether resources were easily monopolized, and whether polygyny and wealth were related. Results were consistent with predictions (see [link] and [link] ) (Manson and Wrangham 1991).

Questions & Answers

An investment account was opened with an initial deposit of $9,600 and earns 7.4% interest, compounded continuously. How much will the account be worth after 15 years?
Kala Reply
lim x to infinity e^1-e^-1/log(1+x)
given eccentricity and a point find the equiation
Moses Reply
12, 17, 22.... 25th term
Alexandra Reply
12, 17, 22.... 25th term
College algebra is really hard?
Shirleen Reply
Absolutely, for me. My problems with math started in First grade...involving a nun Sister Anastasia, bad vision, talking & getting expelled from Catholic school. When it comes to math I just can't focus and all I can hear is our family silverware banging and clanging on the pink Formica table.
I'm 13 and I understand it great
I am 1 year old but I can do it! 1+1=2 proof very hard for me though.
Not really they are just easy concepts which can be understood if you have great basics. I am 14 I understood them easily.
find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
I know this work
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
make 5/4 into a mixed number, make that a decimal, and then multiply 32 by the decimal 5/4 turns out to be
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
is it a question of log
I rally confuse this number And equations too I need exactly help
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Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
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greetings from Iran
salut. from Algeria
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
Jeannette has $5 and $10 bills in her wallet. The number of fives is three more than six times the number of tens. Let t represent the number of tens. Write an expression for the number of fives.
August Reply
What is the expressiin for seven less than four times the number of nickels
Leonardo Reply
How do i figure this problem out.
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
why surface tension is zero at critical temperature
I think if critical temperature denote high temperature then a liquid stats boils that time the water stats to evaporate so some moles of h2o to up and due to high temp the bonding break they have low density so it can be a reason
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
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