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Cultural-ecological theory is based on the premise that minorities’ academic achievement is linked to their ethnicity and to their willingness to conform to their environment (Foster, 2004; Ogbu, 1981). In this theory, minority students have the capability to participate successfully with White students within the classroom and on standardized tests (Lynn, 2006). Differences in academic achievement are based on how the subgroup adapts and conforms to the dominant groups in educational principles (Ogbu, 1981). Ogbu (1981) further explained that conformity is chosen by minorities based on “competencies”, which determines the amount of success one receives by “…abandoning or modifying substantially their competencies for achievement…” within the dominant society (p. 425). According to the CE theory, individuals from some subgroups “chose to conform”, as long as the adaptation to the dominant group does not go against their “rules of behavior for achievement” within their own culture (Ogbu, 1981, p. 425).

Purpose of the study

The purpose of this study was to examine differences in academic achievement among students who were White or Hispanic using archival data from the Texas Education Agency’s (TEA) Academic Excellence Indicator System (AEIS). Data examined were fifth grade reading and math passing rates from the 1993 through the 2009 school years. The fifth grade TAKS test is a component of the Student Success Initiative (SSI) which by law requires students to take the Math and Reading assessment and pass with at least a certain percentage rate to be qualified to advance to the next grade level (Student Success Initiative, n.d.). An examination of the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) Reading and Math tests, as well as the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) Reading and Math tests across a 16-year period assisted in determining the extent to which an achievement gap was present and whether the achievement gap had declined, if any, and the extent to which equity had been established using statewide standardized assessment for students who were White or Hispanic.

Research questions

The following research questions were addressed in this study: (a) What is the difference in passing rates in reading between White students and Hispanic students in elementary school?; (b) What is the difference in passing rates in math between White students and Hispanic students in elementary school?; (c) What trends, if any, are present in the achievement gap in reading passing rates between White students and Hispanic students in elementary school?; and (d) What trends, if any, are present in the achievement gap in math passing rates between White students and Hispanic students in elementary school? The first two research questions were repeated for the 16 years of data analyzed in this study.

Method

Participants

Participants for this study were selected from the Texas Education Agency Academic Excellence Indicator System which collects and stores data pertaining to the TAKS and TAAS standardized examinations. Participants were chosen for this study based on their ethnicity (i.e., White or Hispanic) and involvement in the fifth grade Reading and Math TAAS or TAKS examination scores from the most recent 16 school years (i.e., 1993-1994 through 2008-2009). Fifth grade was selected because students are required to complete the TAAS or the TAKS, when it was administered in the spring of each year. As stated previously, the fifth grade state-mandated assessment is a component of the Student Success Initiative which by law requires students to take the Math and Reading assessment and pass with at least a certain percentage rate to be qualified to advance to the next grade level (Student Success Initiative, n.d.).

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
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ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
Commplementary angles
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a perfect square v²+2v+_
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algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
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or infinite solutions?
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The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
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Kristine 2*2*2=8
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Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
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No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
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J, combine like terms 7x-4y
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what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
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Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
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. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
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AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
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Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
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AMJAD
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Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
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after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
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silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
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Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
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Source:  OpenStax, The achievement gap between white and non-white students. OpenStax CNX. Jan 10, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11402/1.4
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