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The following statistical analysis were used to address two research questions: To what extent are the EDAD candidates’ self-perceptions of their development of the knowledge, skills and dispositions different at the end of the leadership compared to their ability to apply the knowledge, skill and disposition when they first entered the program? Secondly, to what extent are the change of self-perceptions of knowledge and skills different from the change of dispositions? Repeated measure t -tests were used to compare the mean scores of candidates pretest and posttest scores. A two-way ANOVA was used to measure the difference in identified standards 5.0, 5.1, 5.2 and 5.3 related to ethics and the growth in disposition 17.


Research question 1

Repeated measure t -tests were used to compare the mean scores of candidates Pretest and Post-test scores. Table 1 shows the pretest and posttest mean scores and standard deviations for the EDAD candidates responses to standard 5 and sub-standards 5 1a, 5 2a, and 5 3a.

Pre and Post Means and Standard Deviations
Pre Post
Mean Standard Deviation Mean Standard Deviation
Standard 5 (1-a) 4.07 0.98 4.95 0.25
Standard 5 (2-a) 3.87 1.17 4.96 0.19
Standard 5 (3-a) 3.51 1.17 4.96 0.19
Standard 5 Total 11.45 2.91 14.8 0.74

For Standard 5 (1-a) repeated measure t -tests reveal that there is a significant difference between pretest (M = 4.07, SD = 0.98) and post-test (M = 4.95, SD = 0.25), t (135) = 10.09, p <.001, d = 0.87. Similarly, for standard 5 (2-a) repeated measure t-tests reveal that there is a significant difference between pretest (M = 3.87, SD = 1.03) and posttest (M = 4.93, SD = .25), t (135) = 11.64, p <.001, d = 1.0. For Standard 5 (3-a) repeated measure t -tests reveal that there is a significant difference between pretest (M = 3.51, SD = 1.17) and posttest (M = 4.96, SD = .19), t (135) = 14.20, p <.001, d = 1.23. Finally, for Standard 5 (total) repeated measure t -tests reveal that there is a significant difference between pretest (M = 11.45, SD = 2.91) and posttest (M = 14.8 and SD = 0.74), t = (135) = 12.76, p <.001, d = 1.10.

Research question 2

In addition to measuring the growth of standards using repeated measure t-tests, a two-way ANOVA was used to measure the difference between the growth in identified standards related to ethics and the growth in dispositions. There was as a significant main effect for time (pretest/posttest), F (1, 268) = 143.19, p <.01 , η 2 = 0.53. There was a significant main effect for test (standards/dispositions), F (1, 268) = 53.62, p <.01, η 2 = 0.20. There was also a significant interaction between time (pretest/posttest) and test (standards/dispositions), F 1, 268) = 55.58, p <.01, η 2 = 0.21 .

Post hoc pairwise comparisons indicated that there was a significant difference on the pretest. Pretest scores for the dispositions ( M = 4.66, SD = 0.72) were significantly higher than the pretest scores for standards ( M = 3.82, SD = 0.97). However posttest scores were not significantly different and scores on both the standards and dispositions increased significantly from pretest to posttest.

Questions & Answers

what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
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Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
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I'm interested in nanotube
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Sravani Reply
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Victor Reply
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Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review special issue: portland conference, volume 12, number 3 (october 2011). OpenStax CNX. Oct 17, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11362/1.5
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