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The following statistical analysis were used to address two research questions: To what extent are the EDAD candidates’ self-perceptions of their development of the knowledge, skills and dispositions different at the end of the leadership compared to their ability to apply the knowledge, skill and disposition when they first entered the program? Secondly, to what extent are the change of self-perceptions of knowledge and skills different from the change of dispositions? Repeated measure t -tests were used to compare the mean scores of candidates pretest and posttest scores. A two-way ANOVA was used to measure the difference in identified standards 5.0, 5.1, 5.2 and 5.3 related to ethics and the growth in disposition 17.


Research question 1

Repeated measure t -tests were used to compare the mean scores of candidates Pretest and Post-test scores. Table 1 shows the pretest and posttest mean scores and standard deviations for the EDAD candidates responses to standard 5 and sub-standards 5 1a, 5 2a, and 5 3a.

Pre and Post Means and Standard Deviations
Pre Post
Mean Standard Deviation Mean Standard Deviation
Standard 5 (1-a) 4.07 0.98 4.95 0.25
Standard 5 (2-a) 3.87 1.17 4.96 0.19
Standard 5 (3-a) 3.51 1.17 4.96 0.19
Standard 5 Total 11.45 2.91 14.8 0.74

For Standard 5 (1-a) repeated measure t -tests reveal that there is a significant difference between pretest (M = 4.07, SD = 0.98) and post-test (M = 4.95, SD = 0.25), t (135) = 10.09, p <.001, d = 0.87. Similarly, for standard 5 (2-a) repeated measure t-tests reveal that there is a significant difference between pretest (M = 3.87, SD = 1.03) and posttest (M = 4.93, SD = .25), t (135) = 11.64, p <.001, d = 1.0. For Standard 5 (3-a) repeated measure t -tests reveal that there is a significant difference between pretest (M = 3.51, SD = 1.17) and posttest (M = 4.96, SD = .19), t (135) = 14.20, p <.001, d = 1.23. Finally, for Standard 5 (total) repeated measure t -tests reveal that there is a significant difference between pretest (M = 11.45, SD = 2.91) and posttest (M = 14.8 and SD = 0.74), t = (135) = 12.76, p <.001, d = 1.10.

Research question 2

In addition to measuring the growth of standards using repeated measure t-tests, a two-way ANOVA was used to measure the difference between the growth in identified standards related to ethics and the growth in dispositions. There was as a significant main effect for time (pretest/posttest), F (1, 268) = 143.19, p <.01 , η 2 = 0.53. There was a significant main effect for test (standards/dispositions), F (1, 268) = 53.62, p <.01, η 2 = 0.20. There was also a significant interaction between time (pretest/posttest) and test (standards/dispositions), F 1, 268) = 55.58, p <.01, η 2 = 0.21 .

Post hoc pairwise comparisons indicated that there was a significant difference on the pretest. Pretest scores for the dispositions ( M = 4.66, SD = 0.72) were significantly higher than the pretest scores for standards ( M = 3.82, SD = 0.97). However posttest scores were not significantly different and scores on both the standards and dispositions increased significantly from pretest to posttest.

Questions & Answers

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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review special issue: portland conference, volume 12, number 3 (october 2011). OpenStax CNX. Oct 17, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11362/1.5
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