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This module includes a brief introduction to metric spaces at a suitable level of detail for study of signals and systems.

Introduction

In may courses, concepts such as continuity and convergence are invoked without much discussion of their formal definitions, instead relying on the reader's intuitive understanding of these matters. However, for purposes of proofs, including some in the main body of material for this course, a greater rigor is required. This module will discuss metric spaces, a mathematical construct that provide a framework for the study continuity, convergence, and other related ideas in their most concrete but still formal senses. This is accomplished by formalizing a notion of the distance between two elements in a set. The intent in this and subsequent modules in this chapter is not to give a complete overview of the basic topics of analysis but to give a short introduction to those most important to discussion of signal processing in this course.

Metric spaces

A notion of distance

In many situations in signal processing it is often useful to have a concept of distance between the points in a set. This notion is mathematically formalized through the idea of a metric space. A metric space ( M , d ) is a set M together with a function d : M × M R that assigns distances between pairs of elements in M while satisfying three conditions. First, for every x , y M , d ( x , y ) 0 with d ( x , y ) = 0 if and only if x = y . Second, for every x , y M , d ( x , y ) = d ( y , x ) symmetrically. Third, for every x , y , z M , d ( x , y ) + d ( x , z ) d ( y , z ) , which is known as the triangle inequality.

There are, of course, several different possible choices of definitions for distances in a given set. Our typical intuitive understanding of distance in R n fits within this framework as the standard Euclidean metric

d ( x , y ) = | | x - y | | 2

as does the taxicab or Manhatten metric

d ( x , y ) = | | x - y | | 1

that sums individual components of vectors, representing, for example, distances traveled walking around city blocks. Another simple yet more exotic example is provided by the discrete metric on any set defined by

d ( x , y ) = 0 x = y 1 x y

in which all pairs of distinct points are equidistant from eachother but every point is distance zero from itself. One can check that these satisfy the conditions for metric spaces.

Relationship with norms

It is not surprising that norms, which provide a notion of size, and metrics, which provide a notion of distance, would have a close relationship. Intuitively, one way of defining the distance between two points in a metric space could be the size of their difference. In other words given a vector space V over the field F with norm | | · | | , we might ask if the function

d ( x , y ) = | | x - y | |

for every x , y V satisfies the conditions for ( V , d ) to be a metric space.

Let V be a vector space over the field F with norm | | · | | , and let d ( x , y ) = | | x - y | | . Recall that since | | · | | is a norm, | | x | | = 0 if and only if x = 0 and | | a x | | = | a | | | x | | for all a F and x V . Hence | | x - y | | 0 for all x , y V and | | x - y | | = 0 if and only if x = y . Since y - x = - ( x - y ) and | | - ( x - y ) | | = | | x - y | | it follows that | | x - y | | = | | y - x | | for all x , y V . Finally, | | x | | + | | y | | | | x + y | | by the properties of norms, so | | x - y | | + | | x - z | | | | y - z | | for all x , y , z V . Thus, ( V , d ) does indeed satisfy the conditions to be a metric space and is discussed as the metric space induced by the norm | | · | | .

Metric spaces summary

Metric spaces provide a notion of distance and a framework with which to formally study mathematical concepts such as continuity and convergence, and other related ideas. Many metrics can be chosen for a given set, and our most common notions of distance satisfy the conditions to be a metric. Any norm on a vector space induces a metric on that vector space and it is in these types of metric spaces that we are often most interested for study of signals and systems.

Questions & Answers

suppose you are the manager of a perfect competitive firm. your total cost of production is given by TC=100+Q2 suppose you are told that the price of their services is $60 1. how much output should you produce to maximise profit? show calculations 2. determine the level of profit
Niza Reply
220
ezhilarasan
what is price control
Raphael Reply
importance of scale of preference
Offei Reply
what are the factors that affect international organization
Imeobong Reply
Organizational structure,communication,mission
Ogunsola
what is international organization
Imeobong Reply
discuss how international organization affect business in Nigeria
Imeobong
An international organization is an organization with an international membership, scope, or presence.
Avishek
thanks
Imeobong
importance of scale of preference
Offei
demand curve
Raphael
demand uuu
Raphael
uu
Raphael
supply curve
Raphael
what is price control
Raphael
what are the factors that affect demand and commodity
Beatrice Reply
if a firm stays on the same isoquant it means ? a. output missteps decrease b. output must stay. the same c. output must increase d. quantity of labour and capital employed must remain the same e. none
Niza Reply
A
Were
A
alyssa
B
SEMAN
A
Darren
B
Bertilla
D
Romeo
which one is the right answer pls
Bertilla
😂😂😂😂
Niza
it's bad
Niza
B
Foley
d
Fasae
b
Alicia
a
Mohammed
hi
DINA
d
DINA
d) none. because isoquants meant different combination of inputs give same level of out and higher the isoquants gives higher the level of output
ezhilarasan
okay
Bertilla
answ. d.quantity of labour and capital employed must remain equal
mohamed
d
Ayoka
B
jephter
analyse this table showing how this affect the law of diminishing demand return
michael Reply
What are diminishing marginal returns as they relate to costs?
michael
what are diminishing demand
Bertilla
please can you explain it to me because am new to economics
michael
the law of diminishing state that as more and more variable factor is added to a fixed cost, it will increase first and later its begins to fall until its get to zero. that were ur mc equal to zero
Fasae
thanks dr
Bertilla
The law of diminishing demand states that, if the price of a product is raised, a smaller quantity will be demanded and if the price of a product is lowered, a greater quantity will be demanded.
Were
The law of diminishing returns, also referred to as the law of diminishing marginal returns, states that in a production process, as one input variable is increased, there will be a point at which the marginal per unit output will start to decrease, ceteris puribus
Were
guys I need to know what is meant by basic economic mathematics and explain please
Lovemore Reply
It's also the usage of mathematical tools to express and analyse economic problems.
Rasaq
so basically it's the use of mathematical formulas to solve the problems under demand and supply right...
Lovemore
Yes, though economic analysis majorly has to deal with demand and supply forces in fact the back bone of economics rest on demand and supply but there are other functions like consumption function, implicit ,explicit, monotonic( constant, increasing, decreasing), transcendential, homogeneous, polyn
Rasaq
wat improvement do economic has with our life
Aminata Reply
it help us how to use our limited resources to satisfy our unlimited wants
Pagnol
Economics assit in understanding the pre-requisite for Growth and developmen and how the workings of the economy operates.
Rasaq
Economic helps us to manager our limited resources, how to expand it, etc over unlimited want
Eagle
Economics is the social Science in which we study how scarce resources are allocated for the betterment of human being.
Ali Reply
what is equilibrium point
Happiness Reply
where price and quantity demanded meet
Pagnol
is the point where price an quantity demanded meet
Aminata
why do consumer demand curve tend to move downward slope
Aminata
Equilibrium point is the point at which quantity demand equals quantity supply.
Rasaq
What is monopoly
Ezekiel Reply
Is a strict example of an imperfect market where there is only one seller and many buyer for a particular product.
Rasaq
what is economics
BUKENYA Reply
economics us behavior. Of people, nations, markets etc. It has much to do with reactions. watch MSNBC. Bloomberg. everyday they talk about how the markets react to an piece of news, legislation, interest rates etc. Interesting volatile stuff
TOM
but, it also react with science
ezhilarasan
economic is a science with study's the behavior of people,market and price
Bertilla
it's a science which study the behavior of people ,market n price
Bertilla
What is opportunity cost?
Junior
opp. cost~a benefit, profit or value of something that must be given up to acquire or achieve something else
Kim
or something that you foregone
Kim
who is the father of economic
Yirtutey Reply
Adam smith
shaikh
modern father is Adam smith
Bilal
Adam smith
Nazifi
Jeannette has $5 and $10 bills in her wallet. The number of fives is three more than six times the number of tens. Let t represent the number of tens. Write an expression for the number of fives.
August Reply
What is the expressiin for seven less than four times the number of nickels
Leonardo Reply
How do i figure this problem out.
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
why surface tension is zero at critical temperature
Shanjida
I think if critical temperature denote high temperature then a liquid stats boils that time the water stats to evaporate so some moles of h2o to up and due to high temp the bonding break they have low density so it can be a reason
s.
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Signals and systems. OpenStax CNX. Aug 14, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10064/1.15
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