# 0.7 Appendix a  (Page 2/4)

 Page 2 / 4
$L=\frac{\alpha {f}_{s}}{\delta f}$

where $L,\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}{f}_{s}$ , and $\delta f$ are as just defined, and α is given by

$\alpha =0.22+0.0366·SBR$

The validity of these simplified formulas depends on a number of assumptions, detailed in [link] , but all of them are sufficiently satisfied in this case to permit accuracy in the estimation of L within 5% or so.

Examination of [link] shows that $\delta f$ , the filter transition band, can be no larger than $\Delta f-B$ , the difference between the channel spacing and the bandwidth of each channel. Recalling also that $N·\Delta f={f}_{s}$ , we find that

$L=N\alpha \frac{\Delta f}{\delta f}=N\alpha \left\{\frac{1}{1-\frac{B}{\Delta f}}\right\}.$

Thus, to first order, the pulse response duration of the required filter is proportional to the number of channels N and is hyperbolic in the percentage bandwidth , the ratio of the channel bandwidth B to the channel spacing $\Delta f$ . The effect of the proportionality to α will be examined shortly.

## Relationship to the design parameter Q

The development presented in the section Derivation of the equations for a Basic FDM-TDM Transmux defined the integer variable Q as the ratio of L and N . It was pointed out there without proof that in fact Q was an important design parameter, not just the artifact of two others. This can now be seen by combining the relationship $L\equiv QN$ with [link] to produce an expression for Q :

$Q=\alpha \left\{\frac{\Delta f}{\delta f}\right\}=\alpha \left\{\frac{1}{1-\frac{B}{\Delta f}}\right\}$

Since N depends strictly on the number of channels into which the input band is divided, Q contains all of the information about the impact of the desired filter characteristics.

## Continuation of the telegraphy demodulation example

Consider again the example of demodulating R.35 FDM FSK VFT canals discussed in the section Example: Using an FDM-TDM Transmux to Demodulate R.35 Telegraphy Signals . In that section, we determined that the following parameters would be appropriate: ${f}_{s}=3840$ Hz, $N=64$ , and $\Delta f=60$ Hz. To determine Q , and hence the rate of computation needed for the data weighting segment of the transmultiplexer, we need to specify B and $SBR$ , the degree of stopband suppression required.

Generally speaking, the filters in an FSK demodulator need to have unity gain at the mark or space frequency and zero gain at the space or mark frequency, respectively. A computer simulation used to verify the design of the demodulator showed that suppression of 50 dB was more than enough to provide the needed performance. At first glance it might appear that the transition band $\delta f$ can be allowed to equal the tone spacing $\Delta f=60$ Hz, making the percentage bandwidth equal to zero. Actual FSK VFT systems, however, sometimes experience bulk frequency shifts of several Hertz. In order to maintain full performance in the presence of such frequency offsets, the tuner filters need to be designed with a passband bandwidth of 15 Hz or so. Using $SBR=50$ dB in [link] , we find with [link] that the required value of Q for this application is about 2.71. The actual value chosen for this application was 3, producing a pulse response duration of $L=QN=192$ , with the remaining degrees of freedom in the filter design used to widen the filter still more, allowing for even more frequency offset.

what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
China
Cied
types of nano material
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
what is nano technology
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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