# 0.7 Appendix a  (Page 2/4)

 Page 2 / 4
$L=\frac{\alpha {f}_{s}}{\delta f}$

where $L,\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}{f}_{s}$ , and $\delta f$ are as just defined, and α is given by

$\alpha =0.22+0.0366·SBR$

The validity of these simplified formulas depends on a number of assumptions, detailed in [link] , but all of them are sufficiently satisfied in this case to permit accuracy in the estimation of L within 5% or so.

Examination of [link] shows that $\delta f$ , the filter transition band, can be no larger than $\Delta f-B$ , the difference between the channel spacing and the bandwidth of each channel. Recalling also that $N·\Delta f={f}_{s}$ , we find that

$L=N\alpha \frac{\Delta f}{\delta f}=N\alpha \left\{\frac{1}{1-\frac{B}{\Delta f}}\right\}.$

Thus, to first order, the pulse response duration of the required filter is proportional to the number of channels N and is hyperbolic in the percentage bandwidth , the ratio of the channel bandwidth B to the channel spacing $\Delta f$ . The effect of the proportionality to α will be examined shortly.

## Relationship to the design parameter Q

The development presented in the section Derivation of the equations for a Basic FDM-TDM Transmux defined the integer variable Q as the ratio of L and N . It was pointed out there without proof that in fact Q was an important design parameter, not just the artifact of two others. This can now be seen by combining the relationship $L\equiv QN$ with [link] to produce an expression for Q :

$Q=\alpha \left\{\frac{\Delta f}{\delta f}\right\}=\alpha \left\{\frac{1}{1-\frac{B}{\Delta f}}\right\}$

Since N depends strictly on the number of channels into which the input band is divided, Q contains all of the information about the impact of the desired filter characteristics.

## Continuation of the telegraphy demodulation example

Consider again the example of demodulating R.35 FDM FSK VFT canals discussed in the section Example: Using an FDM-TDM Transmux to Demodulate R.35 Telegraphy Signals . In that section, we determined that the following parameters would be appropriate: ${f}_{s}=3840$ Hz, $N=64$ , and $\Delta f=60$ Hz. To determine Q , and hence the rate of computation needed for the data weighting segment of the transmultiplexer, we need to specify B and $SBR$ , the degree of stopband suppression required.

Generally speaking, the filters in an FSK demodulator need to have unity gain at the mark or space frequency and zero gain at the space or mark frequency, respectively. A computer simulation used to verify the design of the demodulator showed that suppression of 50 dB was more than enough to provide the needed performance. At first glance it might appear that the transition band $\delta f$ can be allowed to equal the tone spacing $\Delta f=60$ Hz, making the percentage bandwidth equal to zero. Actual FSK VFT systems, however, sometimes experience bulk frequency shifts of several Hertz. In order to maintain full performance in the presence of such frequency offsets, the tuner filters need to be designed with a passband bandwidth of 15 Hz or so. Using $SBR=50$ dB in [link] , we find with [link] that the required value of Q for this application is about 2.71. The actual value chosen for this application was 3, producing a pulse response duration of $L=QN=192$ , with the remaining degrees of freedom in the filter design used to widen the filter still more, allowing for even more frequency offset.

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
a perfect square v²+2v+_
kkk nice
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
is it 3×y ?
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
im not good at math so would this help me
yes
Asali
I'm not good at math so would you help me
Samantha
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
Asali
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
China
Cied
types of nano material
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
what is nano technology
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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