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Reflection of a pulse from fixed and free ends

Let us now consider what happens to a pulse when it reaches the end of a medium. The medium can be fixed, like a rope tied to a wall, or it can be free, like a rope tied loosely to a pole.

Reflection of a pulse from a fixed end

Investigation : reflection of a pulse from a fixed end

Tie a rope to a wall or some other object that cannot move. Create a pulse in the rope by flicking one end up and down. Observe what happens to the pulse when it reaches the wall.

Reflection of a pulse from a fixed end.

When the end of the medium is fixed, for example a rope tied to a wall, a pulse reflects from the fixed end, but the pulse is inverted (i.e. it is upside-down). This is shown in [link] .

Reflection of a pulse from a free end

Investigation : reflection of a pulse from a free end

Tie a rope to a pole in such a way that the rope can move up and down the pole. Create a pulse in the rope by flicking one end up and down. Observe what happens to the pulse when it reaches the pole.

When the end of the medium is free, for example a rope tied loosely to a pole, a pulse reflects from the free end, but the pulse is not inverted . This is shown in [link] . We draw the free end as a ring around the pole. The ring will move up and down the pole, while the pulse is reflected away from the pole.

Reflection of a pulse from a free end.
The fixed and free ends that were discussed in this section are examples of boundary conditions . You will see more of boundary conditions as you progress in the Physics syllabus.

Pulses at a boundary ii

  1. A rope is tied to a tree and a single pulse is generated. What happens to the pulse as it reaches the tree? Draw a diagram to explain what happens.
  2. A rope is tied to a ring that is loosely fitted around a pole. A single pulse is sent along the rope. What will happen to the pulse as it reaches the pole? Draw a diagram to explain your answer.

The following simulation will help you understand the previous examples. Choose pulse from the options (either manual, oscillate or pulse). Then click on pulse and see what happens. Change from a fixed to a free end and see what happens. Try varying the width, amplitude, damping and tension.

Phet simulation for transverse pulses

Superposition of pulses

Two or more pulses can pass through the same medium at that same time. The resulting pulse is obtained by using the principle of superposition . The principle of superposition states that the effect of the pulses is the sum of their individual effects. After pulses pass through each other, each pulse continues along its original direction of travel, and their original amplitudes remain unchanged.

Constructive interference takes place when two pulses meet each other to create a larger pulse. The amplitude of the resulting pulse is the sum of the amplitudes of the two initial pulses. This is shown in [link] .

Constructive interference is when two pulses meet, resulting in a bigger pulse.
Superposition of two pulses: constructive interference.

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
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algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
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or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
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Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
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In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
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Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
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the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
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Source:  OpenStax, Siyavula textbooks: grade 10 physical science. OpenStax CNX. Aug 29, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11245/1.3
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