<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Let me end by throwing down the gauntlet and arguing that Wikipedia is not only a model for the humanities but also for the university today. To be sure, there are other examples that I might have mentioned, but Wikipedia is probably the most pervasive, non-corporate, digital technology platform for knowledge generation. Far from a web-based encyclopedia for “intellectual sluggards” engaged in a “flight from expertise” (to quote Michael Gorman, former President of the American Library Association [qtd. in Stothart]), Wikipedia, I believe, represents a truly innovative, global, multilingual, collaborative, knowledge-generating community and platform for authoring, editing, distributing, and versioning knowledge.  To date, it has more than three million content pages, more than three hundred million edits, over ten million registered users, and articles in 47 languages (Wikipedia Statistics). This is a massive achievement for eight years of work. Wikipedia could, in fact, be a model for rethinking collaborative research and the dissemination of knowledge at institutions of higher learning, which are all too often fixated on “individual training, discrete disciplines, and isolated achievement and accomplishment” (Davidson and Goldberg, 14). 

Wikipedia represents a dynamic, flexible, and open-ended network for knowledge creation and distribution that underscores process, collaboration, access, interactivity, and creativity with an editing model and versioning system that documents every contingent decision made by every contributing author.  But you perhaps object: The content is amateurish, open to anyone, and, hence, cannot be trusted. Why would we want to abandon credentialing and expertise? And I reply: The point is not credentialing versus amateurness (or expertise versus crowd-sourcing); it's the fact that expertise and credentialing are distributed and shared in a way that increases the depth, scope, duration, and impact of both. Moreover, consensus never finally arrives when the system keeps an ongoing and ever-expanding record of each change and, significantly, always exposes its own conditions of possibility for knowledge production. At this moment in its short life, Wikipedia is already the most comprehensive, representative, and pervasive participatory platform for knowledge production ever created by humankind.  That's worth some pause and reflection.

The point here is not that Wikipedia is “the answer” to the crisis of the humanities or that humanities scholarship should turn into Wikipedia entries; rather, it's that Wikipedia represents a very different model for creating, authorizing, and distributing knowledge; Google Earth and HyperCities represent others; social technologies, virtual worlds, and creative commons authoring environments offer still others. A central part of the work of the humanities must be to create and interrogate new models for knowledge production in our “computerized” societies of 2009. Not only do we have to rethink how knowledge gets created, we also have to rethink what knowledge looks (or sounds, feels, or tastes) like, who gets to create knowledge, when it is "done" or transformed, how it gets legitimated and authorized, and how it is made accessible to a significantly broader (and potentially global) audience. The twenty-first century university has the potential to generate, legitimate, and disseminate knowledge in radically new ways on a scale never before realized, involving technologies and communities that rarely (if ever) were engaged in a global knowledge-creation enterprise. We have just begun to do this. And that's what Digital Humanities 2.0 is fundamentally about.

References

Darnton, Robert. “The Library in the New Age.” New York Review of Books 55.10, June 12, 2008.

Davidson, Cathy. “Humanities 2.0: Promise, Perils, Predictions.” PMLA 123.3 (2008): 707-17.

Davidson, Cathy and David Theo Goldberg. The Future of Learning Institutions . Cambridge: MIT Press, 2009.

Digital Humanities Manifesto Commentpress versions 1.0 and 2.0: (External Link) (accessed September 9, 2009).

“Digital Humanities Manifesto.” Commentpress versions 1.0 and 2.0. Institute for Future of the Book. (External Link) (accessed September 9, 2009).

Donoghue, Frank. The Last Professors: The Corporate University and The Fate of the Humanities . New York: Fordham Press, 2008.

Drucker, Johanna. “Blind Spots.” The Chronicle of Higher Education . April 3, 2009. (External Link) (accessed September 9, 2009).

Fish, Stanley. “The Last Professor.” The New York Times . January 18, 2009. (External Link) (accessed September 9, 2009).

Foucault, Michel. “The Discourse on Language.” The Archaeology of Knowledge . Translated by A.M. Sheridan Smith. New York: Pantheon Books, 1972.

Hayles, Katherine N. Writing Machines . Cambridge: MIT Press, 2002.

HyperCities. (External Link) .

Jaschik, Scott. “Disappearing Jobs.” Inside Higher Education . December 17, 2009. (External Link) (accessed December 22, 2009).

Kittler, Friedrich. Discourse Networks 1800/1900 . Translated by Chris Metteer with Chris Cullens. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 1990.

Kuhn, Thomas S. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.

Lyotard, Jean-François. The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge . Translated by Geoff Bennington and Brian Massumi. Foreword by Fredric Jameson. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1991.

Negroponte, Nicholas. Being Digital . New York: Vintage, 1996.

Noble, David. Digital Diploma Mills: The Automation of Higher Education . New York: Monthly Review Press, 2001.

O'Reilly, Timothy. “What is Web 2.0: Design Patterns and Business Models for the Next Generation of Software.” 2005. (External Link) (accessed September 9, 2009).

Presner, Todd. Mobile Modernity: Germans, Jews, Trains . New York: Columbia University Press, 2007.

Stothart, Chloe. “Web Threatens Learning Ethos.” Times Higher Education . June 22, 2007. (External Link)&storycode=209408 (accessed September 9, 2009).

Wikipedia Statistics. (External Link) (accessed September 9, 2009).

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
I know this work
salma
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
Abhi
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
hmm
Abhi
is it a question of log
Abhi
🤔.
Abhi
I rally confuse this number And equations too I need exactly help
salma
But this is not salma it's Faiza live in lousvile Ky I garbage this so I am going collage with JCTC that the of the collage thank you my friends
salma
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
hii
Uday
hi
salma
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
QuizOver.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Emerging disciplines: shaping new fields of scholarly inquiry in and beyond the humanities. OpenStax CNX. May 13, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11201/1.1
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Emerging disciplines: shaping new fields of scholarly inquiry in and beyond the humanities' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask