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Let me end by throwing down the gauntlet and arguing that Wikipedia is not only a model for the humanities but also for the university today. To be sure, there are other examples that I might have mentioned, but Wikipedia is probably the most pervasive, non-corporate, digital technology platform for knowledge generation. Far from a web-based encyclopedia for “intellectual sluggards” engaged in a “flight from expertise” (to quote Michael Gorman, former President of the American Library Association [qtd. in Stothart]), Wikipedia, I believe, represents a truly innovative, global, multilingual, collaborative, knowledge-generating community and platform for authoring, editing, distributing, and versioning knowledge.  To date, it has more than three million content pages, more than three hundred million edits, over ten million registered users, and articles in 47 languages (Wikipedia Statistics). This is a massive achievement for eight years of work. Wikipedia could, in fact, be a model for rethinking collaborative research and the dissemination of knowledge at institutions of higher learning, which are all too often fixated on “individual training, discrete disciplines, and isolated achievement and accomplishment” (Davidson and Goldberg, 14). 

Wikipedia represents a dynamic, flexible, and open-ended network for knowledge creation and distribution that underscores process, collaboration, access, interactivity, and creativity with an editing model and versioning system that documents every contingent decision made by every contributing author.  But you perhaps object: The content is amateurish, open to anyone, and, hence, cannot be trusted. Why would we want to abandon credentialing and expertise? And I reply: The point is not credentialing versus amateurness (or expertise versus crowd-sourcing); it's the fact that expertise and credentialing are distributed and shared in a way that increases the depth, scope, duration, and impact of both. Moreover, consensus never finally arrives when the system keeps an ongoing and ever-expanding record of each change and, significantly, always exposes its own conditions of possibility for knowledge production. At this moment in its short life, Wikipedia is already the most comprehensive, representative, and pervasive participatory platform for knowledge production ever created by humankind.  That's worth some pause and reflection.

The point here is not that Wikipedia is “the answer” to the crisis of the humanities or that humanities scholarship should turn into Wikipedia entries; rather, it's that Wikipedia represents a very different model for creating, authorizing, and distributing knowledge; Google Earth and HyperCities represent others; social technologies, virtual worlds, and creative commons authoring environments offer still others. A central part of the work of the humanities must be to create and interrogate new models for knowledge production in our “computerized” societies of 2009. Not only do we have to rethink how knowledge gets created, we also have to rethink what knowledge looks (or sounds, feels, or tastes) like, who gets to create knowledge, when it is "done" or transformed, how it gets legitimated and authorized, and how it is made accessible to a significantly broader (and potentially global) audience. The twenty-first century university has the potential to generate, legitimate, and disseminate knowledge in radically new ways on a scale never before realized, involving technologies and communities that rarely (if ever) were engaged in a global knowledge-creation enterprise. We have just begun to do this. And that's what Digital Humanities 2.0 is fundamentally about.


Darnton, Robert. “The Library in the New Age.” New York Review of Books 55.10, June 12, 2008.

Davidson, Cathy. “Humanities 2.0: Promise, Perils, Predictions.” PMLA 123.3 (2008): 707-17.

Davidson, Cathy and David Theo Goldberg. The Future of Learning Institutions . Cambridge: MIT Press, 2009.

Digital Humanities Manifesto Commentpress versions 1.0 and 2.0: (External Link) (accessed September 9, 2009).

“Digital Humanities Manifesto.” Commentpress versions 1.0 and 2.0. Institute for Future of the Book. (External Link) (accessed September 9, 2009).

Donoghue, Frank. The Last Professors: The Corporate University and The Fate of the Humanities . New York: Fordham Press, 2008.

Drucker, Johanna. “Blind Spots.” The Chronicle of Higher Education . April 3, 2009. (External Link) (accessed September 9, 2009).

Fish, Stanley. “The Last Professor.” The New York Times . January 18, 2009. (External Link) (accessed September 9, 2009).

Foucault, Michel. “The Discourse on Language.” The Archaeology of Knowledge . Translated by A.M. Sheridan Smith. New York: Pantheon Books, 1972.

Hayles, Katherine N. Writing Machines . Cambridge: MIT Press, 2002.

HyperCities. (External Link) .

Jaschik, Scott. “Disappearing Jobs.” Inside Higher Education . December 17, 2009. (External Link) (accessed December 22, 2009).

Kittler, Friedrich. Discourse Networks 1800/1900 . Translated by Chris Metteer with Chris Cullens. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 1990.

Kuhn, Thomas S. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.

Lyotard, Jean-François. The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge . Translated by Geoff Bennington and Brian Massumi. Foreword by Fredric Jameson. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1991.

Negroponte, Nicholas. Being Digital . New York: Vintage, 1996.

Noble, David. Digital Diploma Mills: The Automation of Higher Education . New York: Monthly Review Press, 2001.

O'Reilly, Timothy. “What is Web 2.0: Design Patterns and Business Models for the Next Generation of Software.” 2005. (External Link) (accessed September 9, 2009).

Presner, Todd. Mobile Modernity: Germans, Jews, Trains . New York: Columbia University Press, 2007.

Stothart, Chloe. “Web Threatens Learning Ethos.” Times Higher Education . June 22, 2007. (External Link)&storycode=209408 (accessed September 9, 2009).

Wikipedia Statistics. (External Link) (accessed September 9, 2009).

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
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The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
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Commplementary angles
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a perfect square v²+2v+_
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algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
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or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
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rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
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Kristine 2*2*2=8
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Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
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. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
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Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
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what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
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I'm interested in Nanotube
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Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
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Source:  OpenStax, Emerging disciplines: shaping new fields of scholarly inquiry in and beyond the humanities. OpenStax CNX. May 13, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11201/1.1
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