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References

Alba, R.,&Nee, V. (1997). Rethinking assimilation theory for a new era of immigration. International Migration Review , 31(4), 826-874.

Bureau of Justice Statistics . (2001). Criminal victimization 2000. Changes 1999-2000 with trends 1993-2000 . Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs.

Bureau of Justice Statistics . (2002). Immigration offenders in the federal criminal justice system . Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs.

Bureau of Justice Statistics . (2004). Prisoners in 2003. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs.

Cohen, L. E.,&Felson, M. (1979). Social change and crime rate trends: A routine activity approach. American Sociological Review , 44(4),588–609.

Elliott, D. S.,&Ageton, S. (1980). Reconciling race and class differences in self-reported and official estimates of delinquency. American Sociological Review , 45(1), 95-110.

Farley, R.,&Alba, R. (2002). The new second generation in the United States. Interational Migration Research , 36 (3),669-701.

Fox, J. A,&Zawitz, M. A. (2004) Homicide trends in the United States. 2002 update. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/htius.pdf

Glick-Schiller, N. (1999). Transmigrants and nation-states: Something old and something new in the U.S. immigrant experience. In C. Hirshman,P. Kasinitz,&J. Rewind (Eds.), The handbook of international migration . New York: The Russell Sage Foundation.

Gordon, M. (1964). Assimilation in American life. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hagan, J.,&Palloni, A. (1998). Immigration and crime in the United States. In J. P. Smith&B. Edmonston (Eds.), The immigration debate (pp. 367-387). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Hagan, J.,&Palloni, A. (1999). Sociological criminology and the mythology of Hispanic immigration and crime. Social Problems , 46 , 617-632.

Hindelang, M., Gottfredson, M.,&Garofalo, J. (1978). Victims of personal crime: An empirical foundation for a theory of personal victimization. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.

Ianni, F. A. J. (1998). New mafia: Black, Hispanic and Italian styles. Society , 35, 2.

Lee, M. T. Martinez, R. J., Rosenfeld, R. (2001). Does immigration increase homicide? Negative evidence from three border cities. The Sociological Quarterly 42 (4) 559-580.

New York State Division of Criminal Justice Services. (2004). 1999 crime and

New York State Division of Criminal Justice Services. (2004). 1999 crime and justice annual report . Albany, NY: New York State Division of Criminal Justice Services. Retrieved from (External Link) .

Miller, E. M.,&Kleinman, L. H. (1985). Political economy and the social control of ethnic crime. In L. Maldonado&J. Moore (Eds.), Urban ethnicity in the United States: New Immigrants and Old Minorities . Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.

Pennell, S., Curtis, C.,&Tayman, J. (1989). The impact of illegal immigration on the criminal justice system. San Diego, CA: Association of Governments.

Portes, A., Guarnido, L.,&Landolt, P. (1999). Introduction: Pitfalls and promise of an emergent research field. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 22 , 463-478.

Rodriguez, L. J. (1993). Always running: La vida loca, gang days in Los Angeles. Curbstone Press.

Sanders, W. B. (1994). Gangbangs and drive-bys : Grounded culture and juvenile gang violence. Aldine de Gruyter.

Sickmund, M., Sladky, T.,&Kang, W. (2004). Census of juveniles in residential placement databook . Retrieved from http//www.ojjdp.ncjrs.org/ojstatbb/cjrp .

Vigil, J. D. (1988). Barrio gangs: Street life and identity in Southern California . Austin: University of Texas Press.

Vigil, J.D. (2002). A rainbow of gangs: Street cultures in the mega-city . Austin: University of Texas Press.

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Yeager, M. G. (1996). Immigrants and criminality: A meta survey . Ottawa, Ontario: Ministry of Citizenship&Immigration, Government of Canada.

Orlando Rodríguez is Professor in the Department of Sociology/Anthropology, Fordham University, Bronx, New York, USA&Scholar in Residence at Vera Institute of Justice New York, New York, USA

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Immigration in the united states and spain: considerations for educational leaders. OpenStax CNX. Jul 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11174/1.28
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