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The limiting issue of GATE right now is its time consuming simulations for modeling realistic scans or treatment planning. A secured web platform enabling medical physicists and physicians to use grid technology to compute treatment planning using GATE Monte Carlo simulations and share medical data has been developed. This platform, the Hospital Platform for E-health (HOPE, Diarena et al. 2008) provides quick, secure and easy to use tools to physicians or medical physicists to perform treatment planning on the Grid infrastructure. When the user is logged in, he/she has the possibility to upload or access medical data located on the hospital’s PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System) server In the case of medical imaging for radiotherapy, the metadata server (AMGA) services located at the hospital collect metadata as attributes like the name of the patient, the characteristics of the disease, etc. SSL (Secure Socket Layer) connections in addition to encryption systems are used for the transfer of data. Authentication using ACLs (Access Control Lists) are used for the access to metadata in the database. The metadata server provides a replication layer which makes databases locally available to user jobs and replicates the changes between the different participating databases. Information contained in electronic patient sheets is also registered as parameters in the metadata server. The anonymized medical images are registered on the grid. GridFTP (File Transfer Protocol) is used to enable advanced security transfers. Medical images are associated with patient sheets and the user can automatically visualize them.

By visualizing the tumour, the physician can choose what kind of device is the most appropriate to treat the patient using ionizing particles (field size, type of particle, energy, brachytherapy sources, ...). The treatment plans can be directly visualized from the HOPE portal and downloaded onto the personal computer of the user. The web portal offers to the user a transparent and secure way to create, submit and manage GATE simulations using realistic scans in a grid environment. The conviviality of the web portal and the Grid performances could make it possible, in the near future, to use Monte Carlo simulations from clinical centres or hospitals to treat patients in routine clinical practice for specific radiotherapy treatments. In addition, the web platform functionalities enable direct access to medical data (patient sheets, images...) and secure sharing between two users located in different hospitals.

References

Benkner S., Berti G., Engelbrecht G. et al. (2001). GEMSS: Grid-infrastructure for Medical Service Provision. Methods of Information in Medicine , 44(2). pp. 177-181.

Blanquer, I. and Hernández, V. (2005). The Grid as a Healthcare Provision Tool. Methods of Information in Medicine vol. 44. pp. 144–148

Brady, M. et al. (2003) eDiamond: a grid-enabled federated database of annotated mammograms. Berman, F., Fox, G. and Hey, T. (eds.) Grid Computing: Making the Global Infrastructure a Reality , Wiley.

Breton, V., Da Costa, A.L., De Vlieger, P., Maigne, L., Sarramia, D., Kim, Y-M, Kim, D.,Nguyen, H. Q., Solomonides, T. and Wu Y-T. (2009). Innovative In Silico Approaches to Address Avian Flu Using Grid Technology. Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets 9(3), June. pp. 358-365.

Breton V, Dean K, Solomonides T, editors on behalf of the Healthgrid White Paper collaboration (2005). The Healthgrid White Paper. Proceedings of the Healthgrid conference . Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, IOS Press, vol. 112. pp. 249–321.

Chien, A., Foster, I., Goddette, D. (2002). Grid technologies empowering drug discovery. Drug Discovery Today , 7 Suppl 20. pp. 176-180

Diarena, M. et al. (2008). HOPE, an open platform for medical data management on the grid. Proceedings of HealthGrid . Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, vol. 138. pp. 34–48.

Erberich, S.G., Silverstein, J.C., Chervenak, A., Schuler, R., Nelson, M.D. and Kesselman, C. (2007). Globus MEDICUS: federation of DICOM medical imaging devices into healthcare Grids. Proceedings of HealthGrid. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, vol 126. pp. 269–278.

Freund J, Comaniciu D, Ioannis Y, et al. (2007). Health-e-child: an integrated biomedical platform for grid-based paediatrics. Proceedings of Healthgrid . Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, IOS Press, vol. 120. pp. 259–70.

Jan, S. et al. (2004). GATE: a simulation toolkit for PET and SPECT. Physics in Medicine and Biology , 49(19). pp. 4543–61.

von Karsa, L. et al. (2007) Cancer Screening in the European Union; Report on the implementation of the Council Recommendation on cancer screening.

Koblitz B., Santos, N. and Pose, V. (2008). The AMGA Metadata Service. Journal of Grid Computing . vol. 6. pp.61–76.

Mohammed, Y., Sax, U., Viezens, F. and Rienhoff, O. (2007). Shortcomings of current grid middlewares regarding privacy in HealthGrids. Proceedings of HealthGrid . Studies in Health Technology and Informatics. vol. 126. pp. 322–329.

Montagnat, J., Jouvenot, D., Pera, C., Frohner, A., Kunszt, P., Koblitz, B., Santos, N. and Loomis, C. (2006). Bridging clinical information systems and grid middleware: a Medical Data Manager. Proceedings of HealthGrid . Studies in Health Technologies and Informatics, vol. 120. pp. 14-24.

Neumann, G., Noda, T. and Kawaoka, Y. (2009). Emergence and pandemic potential of swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus, Nature 459, 931-939, June

Richards, W.G. (2002). Virtual screening using grid computing: the screensaver project. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery , vol. 1, pp. 551-555

SHARE Project (2008). SHARE, the journey: a European HealthGrid roadmap , printed by the European Commission, Information Society and Media DG, ISBN n° 9789279096686

De Vlieger, P., Boire, J.Y. and Breton, V. et al. (2009). Grid-enabled Sentinel Network for Cancer Surveillance. Proceedings of HealthGrid . Studies in Health Technologies and Informatics. vol 147

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Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
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Sherica
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Sherica
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Tamia
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
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Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
yes
Asali
I'm not good at math so would you help me
Samantha
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
Asali
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Research in a connected world. OpenStax CNX. Nov 22, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10677/1.12
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