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Interpolation: by an integer factor l

Interpolation means increasing the sampling rate, or filling in in-between samples. Equivalent to sampling abandlimited analog signal L times faster. For the ideal interpolator,

X 1 ω X 0 L ω ω L 0 L ω
We wish to accomplish this digitally. Consider [link] and [link] .
y m X 0 m L m 0 ± L ± 2 L 0
The DTFT of y m is
Y ω m ω y m ω m n x 0 n ω L n n x n ω L n X 0 ω L
Since X 0 ω is periodic with a period of 2 , X 0 L ω Y ω is periodic with a period of 2 L (see [link] ).
By inserting zero samples between the samples of x 0 n , we obtain a signal with a scaled frequency response that simply replicates X 0 ω L times over a 2 interval!

Obviously, the desired x 1 m can be obtained simply by lowpass filtering y m to remove the replicas.

x 1 m y m h L m
Given H L m 1 ω L 0 L ω In practice, a finite-length lowpass filter is designed using any of the methods studied so far ( [link] ).

Interpolator block diagram

Decimation: sampling rate reduction (by an integer factor m)

Let y m x 0 L m ( [link] )

That is, keep only every L th sample ( [link] )
In frequency (DTFT):
Y ω m y m ω m m x 0 M m ω m n M m n x 0 n k δ n M k ω n M ω ω M n x 0 n k δ n M k ω n DTFT x 0 n DTFT δ n M k
Now DTFT δ n M k 2 k 0 M 1 X k δ ω 2 k M for ω as shown in homework #1, where X k is the DFT of one period of the periodic sequence. In this case, X k 1 for k 0 1 M 1 and DTFT δ n M k 2 k 0 M 1 δ ω 2 k M .
DTFT x 0 n DTFT δ n M k X 0 ω 2 k 0 M 1 δ ω 2 k M 1 2 μ X 0 μ 2 k 0 M 1 δ ω μ 2 k M k 0 M 1 X 0 ω 2 k M
so Y ω k 0 M 1 X 0 ω M 2 k M i.e. , we get digital aliasing .( [link] )
Usually, we prefer not to have aliasing, so the downsampler is preceded by a lowpass filter to remove all frequencycomponents above ω M ( [link] ).

Rate-changing by a rational fraction l/m

This is easily accomplished by interpolating by a factor of L , then decimating by a factor of M ( [link] ).

The two lowpass filters can be combined into one LP filterwith the lower cutoff, H ω 1 ω L M 0 L M ω Obviously, the computational complexity and simplicity of implementation will depend on L M : 2 3 will be easier to implement than 1061 1060 !

Questions & Answers

so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
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what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Digital signal processing: a user's guide. OpenStax CNX. Aug 29, 2006 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10372/1.2
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