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Distinguishing line thichness in "mfrac" display

<m:math display="block"> <m:mi> x </m:mi> <m:mo> = </m:mo> <m:mfrac linethickness="thick"> <m:mrow> <m:mn> 1 </m:mn> <m:mo> + </m:mo> <m:mfrac linethickness="medium"> <m:mn> 3 </m:mn> <m:mn> 10 </m:mn> </m:mfrac> </m:mrow> <m:mrow> <m:mfrac> <m:mn> 2 </m:mn> <m:mn> 7 </m:mn> </m:mfrac> <m:mo> + </m:mo> <m:mfrac> <m:mrow> <m:mfrac linethickness="medium"> <m:mn> 8 </m:mn> <m:mn> 11 </m:mn> </m:mfrac> </m:mrow> <m:mn> 5 </m:mn> </m:mfrac> </m:mrow> </m:mfrac> </m:math>

Save the file after editing as “test.xml”. The display looks like :

x = 1 + 3 10 2 7 + 8 11 5

Bevelled fraction and the alignment of rows

    Attribute value types

  • numalign (default = center) : left | center | right
  • denomalign (default = center) : left | center | right
  • bevelled (default = false) : true | false

The “numalign” and “demoalign” affects alignment of numerator and denominator with respect to the bar. In most of the case, we do not change the default “center” element as this is the manner in which expressions are written in mathematics.

The “bevelled” attribute provides an alternate form for rendering fraction. In beveled form, the bar is a slant line, in stead of a horizontal line. This form is useful, when we want to include fraction inside the text as its default form takes more vertical space than that of the text, disturbing line spacing between text lines. More significantly, this reduces vertical space of an intensively nested expression.

Bevelled "mfrac" display

<m:math display="block"> <m:mi> x </m:mi> <m:mo> = </m:mo> <m:mfrac bevelled="true" linethickness="thick"> <m:mrow> <m:mn> 1 </m:mn> <m:mo> + </m:mo> <m:mfrac linethickness="medium"> <m:mn> 3 </m:mn> <m:mn> 10 </m:mn> </m:mfrac> </m:mrow> <m:mrow> <m:mfrac> <m:mn> 2 </m:mn> <m:mn> 7 </m:mn> </m:mfrac> <m:mo> + </m:mo> <m:mfrac> <m:mrow> <m:mfrac bevelled="true" linethickness="medium"> <m:mn> 8 </m:mn> <m:mn> 11 </m:mn> </m:mfrac> </m:mrow> <m:mn> 5 </m:mn> </m:mfrac> </m:mrow> </m:mfrac> </m:math>

Save the file after editing as “test.xml”. The display looks like :

x = 1 + 3 10 2 7 + 8 11 5

Radical layout elements

The “msqrt” and “mroot” are radical elements. The “msqrt” element renders square root, while “mroot” element represents indices with a base and index.

"msqrt" layout element

The “msqrt” element accepts zero or one argument. Its syntax is :

<msqrt> base </msqrt>

When there are more than one child elements, then they are considered to be enclosed within “mrow” tags. This means that the “msqrt” element draws an inferred implementation of “mrow”. This saves us from coding “mrow” tags explicitly, irrespective of numbers of arguments.

Square root element : msqrt

<m:math display="block"> <m:msqrt> <m:mi>x</m:mi> <m:mo>-</m:mo> <m:mn>3</m:mn> </m:msqrt> </m:math>

Save the file after editing as “test.xml”. The display looks like :

x - 3

Like other elements in MathML, “msqrt” element supports nesting to enclose square root recursively.

Nested square

<m:math display="block"> <m:msqrt> <m:mi>{</m:mi> <m:mi>x</m:mi> <m:mi>+</m:mi> <m:msqrt> <m:mi>(</m:mi> <m:mi>x</m:mi> <m:mi>+</m:mi> <m:mi>10</m:mi> <m:mi>)</m:mi> </m:msqrt> <m:mi>}</m:mi> </m:msqrt> </m:math>

Save the file after editing as “test.xml”. The display looks like :

{ x + ( x + 10 ) }

"mroot" layout element

The “mroot” element requires exactly two arguments – the first one as the base and second as index. The syntax of the element is :

<m:mroot> base index </m:mroot>

Each of these arguments may be combination of elements, which must be grouped separately with the help of “mrow” element in two distinct groups.

Indices element : mroot

<m:math display="block"> <m:mroot> <m:mrow> <m:mi>x</m:mi> <m:mo>-</m:mo> <m:mn>3</m:mn> </m:mrow> <m:mfrac> <m:mi>x</m:mi> <m:mn>2</m:mn> </m:mfrac> </m:mroot> </m:math>

Save the file after editing as “test.xml”. The display looks like :

x - 3 x 2

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
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Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
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Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
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Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
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s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
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for screen printed electrodes ?
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s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
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I'm interested in nanotube
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Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
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how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, A primer in mathml. OpenStax CNX. Apr 19, 2006 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10345/1.16
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