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Information in the form of numbers, graphs and tables is all around us; on television, on the radio or in the newspaper. We are exposed to crime rates, sports results, rainfall, government spending, rate of HIV/AIDS infection, population growth and economic growth.

This chapter demonstrates how Mathematics can be used to manipulate data, to represent or misrepresent trends and patterns and to provide solutions that are directly applicable to the world around us.

Skills relating to the collection, organisation, display, analysis and interpretation of information that were introduced in earlier grades are developed further.

Recap of earlier work

The collection of data has been introduced in earlier grades as a method of obtaining answers to questions about the world around us. This work will be briefly reviewed.

Data and data collection



Data refers to the pieces of information that have been observed and recorded, from an experiment or a survey. There are two types of data: primary and secondary. The word "data" is the plural of the word "datum", and therefore one should say, "the data are" and not "the data is".

Data can be classified as primary or secondary , and primary or secondary data can be classified as qualitative or quantitative . [link] summarises the classifications of data.

Classes of data.
  • describes the original data that have been collected. This type of data is also known as raw data. Often the primary data set is very large and is therefore summarised or processed to extract meaningful information.
  • is information that cannot be written as numbers, for example, if you were collecting data from people on how they feel or what their favourite colour is.
  • is information that can be written as numbers, for example, if you were collecting data from people on their height or weight.
  • is primary data that has been summarised or processed, for example, the set of colours that people gave as favourite colours would be secondary data because it is a summary of responses.

Transforming primary data into secondary data through analysis, grouping or organisation into secondary data is the process of generating information.

Purpose of collecting primary data

Data is collected to provide answers that help with understanding a particular situation. Here are examples to illustrate some real world data collections scenarios in the categories of qualitative and quantitative data.

Qualitative data

  • The local government might want to know how many residents have electricity and might ask the question: "Does your home have a safe, independent supply of electricity?"
  • A supermarket manager might ask the question: “What flavours of soft drink should be stocked in my supermarket?" The question asked of customers might be “What is your favourite soft drink?” Based on the customers' responses, the manager can make an informed decision as to what soft drinks to stock.
  • A company manufacturing medicines might ask “How effective is our pill at relieving a headache?” The question asked of people using the pill for a headache might be: “Does taking the pill relieve your headache?” Based on responses, the company learns how effective their product is.
  • A motor car company might want to improve their customer service, and might ask their customers: “How can we improve our customer service?”

Questions & Answers

Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Mueller Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Siyavula textbooks: grade 10 maths [ncs]. OpenStax CNX. Aug 05, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11239/1.2
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