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Uses of lanthanides in devices

Lanthanides (elements 57–71) are fairly abundant in the earth’s crust, despite their historic characterization as rare earth elements . Thulium, the rarest naturally occurring lanthanoid, is more common in the earth’s crust than silver (4.5 × 10 −5 % versus 0.79 × 10 −5 % by mass). There are 17 rare earth elements, consisting of the 15 lanthanoids plus scandium and yttrium. They are called rare because they were once difficult to extract economically, so it was rare to have a pure sample; due to similar chemical properties, it is difficult to separate any one lanthanide from the others. However, newer separation methods, such as ion exchange resins similar to those found in home water softeners, make the separation of these elements easier and more economical. Most ores that contain these elements have low concentrations of all the rare earth elements mixed together.

The commercial applications of lanthanides are growing rapidly. For example, europium is important in flat screen displays found in computer monitors, cell phones, and televisions. Neodymium is useful in laptop hard drives and in the processes that convert crude oil into gasoline ( [link] ). Holmium is found in dental and medical equipment. In addition, many alternative energy technologies rely heavily on lanthanoids. Neodymium and dysprosium are key components of hybrid vehicle engines and the magnets used in wind turbines.

This figure contains two images. Figure a shows a background with approximately half of the background to the upper right covered by a dark blue quarter circle. The remainder of the background is red. On top of this surface are 15 vertical columns of light blue dots, which are evenly spaced with gaps between them approximately equal to the width of the columns. In figure b, a computer hard drive is shown. It consists of a thin black plastic rectangular frame on which a thin disk with a metallic appearance is placed. A curved grey shape lies outside of this disk in the rectangular frame and is circled in red. This curved shape has a thin, pointed extension that reaches to the surface of the metallic disk.
(a) Europium is used in display screens for televisions, computer monitors, and cell phones. (b) Neodymium magnets are commonly found in computer hard drives. (credit b: modification of work by “KUERT Datenrettung”/Flickr)

As the demand for lanthanide materials has increased faster than supply, prices have also increased. In 2008, dysprosium cost $110/kg; by 2014, the price had increased to $470/kg. Increasing the supply of lanthanoid elements is one of the most significant challenges facing the industries that rely on the optical and magnetic properties of these materials.

The transition elements have many properties in common with other metals. They are almost all hard, high-melting solids that conduct heat and electricity well. They readily form alloys and lose electrons to form stable cations. In addition, transition metals form a wide variety of stable coordination compounds , in which the central metal atom or ion acts as a Lewis acid and accepts one or more pairs of electrons. Many different molecules and ions can donate lone pairs to the metal center, serving as Lewis bases. In this chapter, we shall focus primarily on the chemical behavior of the elements of the first transition series.

Properties of the transition elements

Transition metals demonstrate a wide range of chemical behaviors. As can be seen from their reduction potentials (see Appendix H ), some transition metals are strong reducing agents, whereas others have very low reactivity. For example, the lanthanides all form stable 3+ aqueous cations. The driving force for such oxidations is similar to that of alkaline earth metals such as Be or Mg, forming Be 2+ and Mg 2+ . On the other hand, materials like platinum and gold have much higher reduction potentials. Their ability to resist oxidation makes them useful materials for constructing circuits and jewelry.

Questions & Answers

explain law of definite proportion
MOTIA Reply
yes same idea
DEMGUE
wat?
Advic
what's kinetic energy
Charity Reply
energy possessed by an object in motion
Asare
what is anion?
Hussniz Reply
an anion is a positively charge ion
ade
Thnkz
Hussniz
an anion is a negatively charged ion
Johnson
And anion is a negatively charged ion which move towards the anode which is positively charged.
Ngwesse
a negatively charged ion formed by the gain of an electron(s)
Asare
H
Cyril
what is matter
Henry Reply
what is pressure
Henry
what is water?
Scarcies Reply
hydrogen gas burned into oxygen gas which forms a polar molecule, has a defenate shape volume but not shape. at 20 degrees Celsius exists as an aqueous solution. Is a solvent that dissolves many solutes into solution. And can act as an acid or a base.
David
HOW CAN ETHANOL BE PREPARED FORM CASSAVA.... (WITH EQUATION)
Obi Reply
by mixing
Henry
it is less dense than water
Erastus Reply
can cooking gas be durable in gallon. ..
mowete
no
PRINCESS
reason pls
mowete
What is happening
Oluchi Reply
Why does ice float on water?
Ngwesse
it is less denser than water
Advic
and why does a boat don't sink in water
DEMGUE
because the boat has a large surface area and the water surface contains molecules that are attracted together by a weak force of attraction
Maxime
brief the water surface has a wall
Maxime
As it cools, olive oil slowly soldifies and froms a solid over a range of temperatures. Which best describes the solid?
Tammie Reply
definition of a sample
ashley Reply
a small part or quantity intended to show what the whole is like
Abdull
What does kj stand for ? or just k. example - 371K
Katr Reply
kilojoules or Kelvin
Annie
what is atom
divinegift Reply
atom is anything that has weight and can occupy space
Neutons
atom is the smallest particle of an element that can neitherbe divided nor destroyed
clin
atom is the smallest indivisible particle of an element.
Igbayima
atom is the smallest particle of an element that can neither be created,subdivided or destroyed
Gbolahan
All wrong
Gift
Do you know that atoms can further be devided
Gift
Go and read 📘 up Dalton atomic theory and who disproved.. Read 📘 up atomic theory
Gift
an atom is the smallest particle of an element that can take part in a chemical reaction
Anyebem
good@anyebem
Henry
what is anion?
Hussniz
what is a structure of atomic
Deren Reply
WATS atomic structure?
mowete
what is the meaning of intermolecular force
Eunice Reply
is the force of attraction that exist between two or more molecules
Johnson
What is a primary standard solution ?
Duval
a known solution
Fiko
Characteristic of a primary standard solution
Duval
pauli's exclusion is based on what?
avdhesh Reply
quantum theory
Charles

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. May 20, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9
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