1.4 Lagrange interpolation

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Lagrange's interpolation formula is a simple and clever method for finding the unique polynomial of order L that exactly passes through L+1 distinct samples of a signal.

Lagrange's interpolation method is a simple and clever way of finding the unique $L$ th-order polynomial that exactly passes through $L+1$ distinct samples of a signal. Once the polynomial is known, its value can easily be interpolated at any pointusing the polynomial equation. Lagrange interpolation is useful in many applications, including Parks-McClellan FIR Filter Design .

Lagrange interpolation formula

Given an $L$ th-order polynomial $P(x)={a}_{0}+{a}_{1}x+\mathrm{...}+{a}_{L}x^{L}=\sum_{k=0}^{L} {a}_{k}x^{k}$ and $L+1$ values of $P({x}_{k})$ at different ${x}_{k}$ , $k\in \{0, 1, \mathrm{...}, L\}$ , ${x}_{i}\neq {x}_{j}$ , $i\neq j$ , the polynomial can be written as $P(x)=\sum_{k=0}^{L} P({x}_{k})\frac{(x-{x}_{1})(x-{x}_{2})\mathrm{...}(x-{x}_{k-1})(x-{x}_{k+1})\mathrm{...}(x-{x}_{L})}{({x}_{k}-{x}_{1})({x}_{k}-{x}_{2})\mathrm{...}({x}_{k}-{x}_{k-1})({x}_{k}-{x}_{k+1})\mathrm{...}({x}_{k}-{x}_{L})}$ The value of this polynomial at other $x$ can be computed via substitution into this formula, or by expanding this formula to determine the polynomial coefficients ${a}_{k}$ in standard form.

Proof

Note that for each term in the Lagrange interpolation formula above, $\prod_{i=0,i\neq k}^{L} \frac{x-{x}_{i}}{{x}_{k}-{x}_{i}}=\begin{cases}1 & \text{if x={x}_{k}}\\ 0 & \text{if (x={x}_{j})\land (j\neq k)}\end{cases}$ and that it is an $L$ th-order polynomial in $x$ . The Lagrange interpolation formula is thus exactly equal to $P({x}_{k})$ at all ${x}_{k}$ , and as a sum of $L$ th-order polynomials is itself an $L$ th-order polynomial.

It can be shown that the Vandermonde matrix $\begin{pmatrix}1 & {x}_{0} & {x}_{0}^{2} & \mathrm{...} & {x}_{0}^{L}\\ 1 & {x}_{1} & {x}_{1}^{2} & \mathrm{...} & {x}_{1}^{L}\\ 1 & {x}_{2} & {x}_{2}^{2} & \mathrm{...} & {x}_{2}^{L}\\ ⋮ & ⋮ & ⋮ & \ddots & ⋮\\ 1 & {x}_{L} & {x}_{L}^{2} & \mathrm{...} & {x}_{L}^{L}\\ \end{pmatrix}\left(\begin{array}{c}{a}_{0}\\ {a}_{1}\\ {a}_{2}\\ ⋮\\ {a}_{L}\end{array}\right)=\left(\begin{array}{c}P({x}_{0})\\ P({x}_{1})\\ P({x}_{2})\\ ⋮\\ P({x}_{L})\end{array}\right)$ has a non-zero determinant and is thus invertible, so the $L$ th-order polynomial passing through all $L+1$ sample points ${x}_{j}$ is unique. Thus the Lagrange polynomial expressions, as an $L$ th-order polynomial passing through the $L+1$ sample points, must be the unique $P(x)$ .

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
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it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
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is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
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Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
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or in general
Ebrahim
in general
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Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
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China
Cied
types of nano material
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many many of nanotubes
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what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
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preparation of nanomaterial
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
what is system testing
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Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
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after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
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how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
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silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
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not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
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Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
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this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
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how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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