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Another major addition to v2.0 from a computer science viewpoint is the ability for a sprite to create and/or delete a clone of itself at runtime.Therefore, it is no longer necessary for the programmer to know in advance how many enemy ships will appear on the horizon during game play. The number ofenemy ships can depend on other factors at that point in the game play.

What Scratch v1.4 lacked in the support of fundamental programming concepts, it made up for in high-level multimedia functionality. Ineffect, Scratch v1.4 provided just enough in the way of fundamental programming capability to form a bridge to high-level multimedia functionality. The goodnews today is that v2.0 provides improvements in both fundamental programming concepts and high-level multimedia functionality.

Music, music, music

Among other things, (particularly including the availability of a quasi social-networking community) , it is probably this multimedia functionality that has attracted the large following among middle school and high schoolstudents.

There are a few projects on the website containing original music developed by the scratcher. (I recall seeing one project where the scratcher was offering to compose original music to be used by other scratchers.) However, that is the exception rather than the rule. Most of the music in theprojects on the website appears to be copyright music for which the scratcher probably doesn'town the copyright.

That having been said, Scratch provides the capability for scratchers to compose their own music if they choose to do so.

The toolbox buttons and toolbox pane

Image 8 shows a normal size screen shot of the center pane in Image 6 .

Image 8. the toolbox buttons and toolbox pane.

Missing image.
Image 8. The toolbox buttons and toolbox pane.

The small frame at the top of Image 8 show the ten toolbox buttons that you click to expose a corresponding toolbox of blocks in the lower frame. (The M otion toolbox was selected before capturing the screenshot shown in Image 8 .)

High-level multimedia functionality

With regard to high-level multimedia functionality, Scratch makes it possible and relatively easy for scratchers to do the things they like to do such as:

  • Create animation using blocks from the Motion toolbox.
  • Deal with costumes, colors, graphics effects and sprite size using blocks from the Looks toolbox.
  • Play imported music and sound effects and create original music and sound effects using blocks from the Sound toolbox.
  • Create program-controlled line drawings using blocks from the Pen toolbox.

These capabilities, which are often difficult to access using "typical CS-approved" programming languages, provide a great deal of sensory feedback and they are a lot of fun to program. This is a largepart of what causes Scratch to engage aspiring programmers.

Program control

This high-level multimedia functionality is controlled by:

  • Programming event firing and detection, loop structures, and selection structures using blocks from the Events and Control toolboxes.
  • Obtaining a variety of different types of information to be used in decision structures using blocks from the Sensing toolbox.
  • Performing arithmetic, relational, and logical operations and accessing a variety of math functions using blocks from the Operators toolbox.
  • Creating and servicing variables using blocks from the D ata toolbox.
  • Creating procedures, functions, methods, or whatever you choose to call them from the More Blocks toolbox.

As a practical matter, the top four buttons on the left in Image 8 are the fun buttons and the remaining six buttons are the control buttons.


In this module, I have provided a high-level overview of the Scratch v2.0 programming environment. Future modules will provide more detailed information about the programmingenvironment.


Please be aware that many of the following links may take you to information about Scratch v1.4.


This section contains a variety of miscellaneous information.

Housekeeping material
  • Module name: Scr0300: Scratch 2.0 Overview
  • File: Scr0300.htm
  • Published:05/10/13

Financial : Although the Connexions site makes it possible for you to download a PDF file for thismodule at no charge, and also makes it possible for you to purchase a pre-printed version of the PDF file, you should beaware that some of the HTML elements in this module may not translate well into PDF.

I also want you to know that, I receive no financial compensation from the Connexions website even if you purchase the PDF version of the module.

In the past, unknown individuals have copied my modules from cnx.org, converted them to Kindle books, and placed them for sale on Amazon.com showing me as the author. Ineither receive compensation for those sales nor do I know who does receive compensation. If you purchase such a book, please beaware that it is a copy of a module that is freely available on cnx.org and that it was made and published withoutmy prior knowledge.

Affiliation : I am a professor of Computer Information Technology at Austin Community College in Austin, TX.


Questions & Answers

so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Teaching beginners to code. OpenStax CNX. May 27, 2013 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11498/1.20
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