# 6.6 Satellites and kepler’s laws: an argument for simplicity  (Page 5/5)

 Page 5 / 5

## Conceptual questions

In what frame(s) of reference are Kepler’s laws valid? Are Kepler’s laws purely descriptive, or do they contain causal information?

## Problem exercises

A geosynchronous Earth satellite is one that has an orbital period of precisely 1 day. Such orbits are useful for communication and weather observation because the satellite remains above the same point on Earth (provided it orbits in the equatorial plane in the same direction as Earth’s rotation). Calculate the radius of such an orbit based on the data for the moon in [link] .

Calculate the mass of the Sun based on data for Earth’s orbit and compare the value obtained with the Sun’s actual mass.

$1.98×{\text{10}}^{\text{30}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{kg}$

Find the mass of Jupiter based on data for the orbit of one of its moons, and compare your result with its actual mass.

Find the ratio of the mass of Jupiter to that of Earth based on data in [link] .

$\frac{{M}_{J}}{{M}_{E}}=\text{316}$

Astronomical observations of our Milky Way galaxy indicate that it has a mass of about $8\text{.}0×{\text{10}}^{\text{11}}$ solar masses. A star orbiting on the galaxy’s periphery is about $6\text{.}0×{\text{10}}^{4}$ light years from its center. (a) What should the orbital period of that star be? (b) If its period is $6\text{.}0×{\text{10}}^{7}$ instead, what is the mass of the galaxy? Such calculations are used to imply the existence of “dark matter” in the universe and have indicated, for example, the existence of very massive black holes at the centers of some galaxies.

Integrated Concepts

Space debris left from old satellites and their launchers is becoming a hazard to other satellites. (a) Calculate the speed of a satellite in an orbit 900 km above Earth’s surface. (b) Suppose a loose rivet is in an orbit of the same radius that intersects the satellite’s orbit at an angle of $\text{90º}$ relative to Earth. What is the velocity of the rivet relative to the satellite just before striking it? (c) Given the rivet is 3.00 mm in size, how long will its collision with the satellite last? (d) If its mass is 0.500 g, what is the average force it exerts on the satellite? (e) How much energy in joules is generated by the collision? (The satellite’s velocity does not change appreciably, because its mass is much greater than the rivet’s.)

a) $7\text{.}\text{4}×{\text{10}}^{3}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{m/s}$

b) $1\text{.}\text{05}×{\text{10}}^{3}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{m/s}$

c) $2\text{.}\text{86}×{\text{10}}^{-7}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{s}$

d) $1\text{.}\text{84}×{\text{10}}^{7}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{N}$

e) $2\text{.}\text{76}×{\text{10}}^{4}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{J}$

Unreasonable Results

(a) Based on Kepler’s laws and information on the orbital characteristics of the Moon, calculate the orbital radius for an Earth satellite having a period of 1.00 h. (b) What is unreasonable about this result? (c) What is unreasonable or inconsistent about the premise of a 1.00 h orbit?

a) $5\text{.}\text{08}×{\text{10}}^{3}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{km}$

b) This radius is unreasonable because it is less than the radius of earth.

c) The premise of a one-hour orbit is inconsistent with the known radius of the earth.

On February 14, 2000, the NEAR spacecraft was successfully inserted into orbit around Eros, becoming the first artificial satellite of an asteroid. Construct a problem in which you determine the orbital speed for a satellite near Eros. You will need to find the mass of the asteroid and consider such things as a safe distance for the orbit. Although Eros is not spherical, calculate the acceleration due to gravity on its surface at a point an average distance from its center of mass. Your instructor may also wish to have you calculate the escape velocity from this point on Eros.

basically potentiometer is series circuit or parallel circuit?
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the life in which half of the radioactive element decay
Arif
what is fluid
anything that flows is Liquid.
prakash
a substance that has no specific shape
Saleemulhaq
How submarines floats one water the same time sink in water
A submarine has the ability to float and sink. The ability to control buoyancy comes from the submarine'strim or ballast tanks which can be filled with either water or air, depending on whether the submarine needs to floator sink. When the submarine floats it means its trim tanks are filled with air
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Anthony
what is work
Force times distance
Karanja
product of force and distance...
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Is physics a natural science?
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A moment is equivalent multiplied by the length passing through the point of reaction and that is perpendicular to the force
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hi guys i am an elementary student
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hello
are you an elementary student too?
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no bro
yes
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hi
Miranwa
yes
Miranwa
welcome
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what is strain?
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Change in dimension per unit dimension is called strain. Ex - Change in length per unit length l/L.
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most possible as it is for you to drink your wine from your straw
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state the law of conservation of energy
energy can neither be destroy or created,but can be change from one form to another
dare
yeah
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it can neither be created nor destroyed
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its so sample question dude
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what is the difference between a principle and a law?
where are from you wendy .?
ghulam
philippines
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why?
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you are beautiful
ghulam
are you physics student
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laws are ment to be broken
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hehe ghulam where r u from?
Muhsin
yes
dare
principle are meant to be followed
dare
south Africa
dare
here Nigeria
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principle is a rule or law of nature, or the basic idea on how the laws of nature are applied.
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Rules are meant to be broken while principals to be followed
Karanja
principle is a rule or law of nature, or the basic idea on how the laws of nature are applied.
tathir
what is momentum?
is the mass times velocity of an object
True
it is the product of mass and velocity of an object.
The momentum possessed by a body is generally defined as the product of its mass and velocity m×v
Usman
momentum is the product of the mass of a body of its velocity
Ugbesia