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Types of media and technology

Media and technology have evolved hand in hand, from early print to modern publications, from radio to television to film. New media emerge constantly, such as we see in the online world.

Early forms of print media, found in ancient Rome, were hand-copied onto boards and carried around to keep the citizenry informed. With the invention of the printing press, the way that people shared ideas changed, as information could be mass produced and stored. For the first time, there was a way to spread knowledge and information more efficiently; many credit this development as leading to the Renaissance and ultimately the Age of Enlightenment. This is not to say that newspapers of old were more trustworthy than the Weekly World News and National Enquirer are today. Sensationalism abounded, as did censorship that forbade any subjects that would incite the populace.

The invention of the telegraph, in the mid-1800s, changed print media almost as much as the printing press. Suddenly information could be transmitted in minutes. As the nineteenth century became the twentieth, U.S. publishers such as Hearst redefined the world of print media and wielded an enormous amount of power to socially construct national and world events. Of course, even as the media empires of William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer were growing, print media also allowed for the dissemination of countercultural or revolutionary materials. Internationally, Vladimir Lenin’s Irksa ( The Spark ) newspaper was published in 1900 and played a role in Russia’s growing communist movement (World Association of Newspapers 2004).

With the invention and widespread use of television in the mid-twentieth century, newspaper circulation steadily dropped off, and in the 21st century, circulation has dropped further as more people turn to internet news sites and other forms of new media to stay informed. According to the Pew Research Center, 2009 saw an unprecedented drop in newspaper circulation––down 10.6 percent from the year before (Pew 2010).

This shift away from newspapers as a source of information has profound effects on societies. When the news is given to a large diverse conglomerate of people, it must maintain some level of broad-based reporting and balance in order to appeal to a broad audience and keep them subscribing. As newspapers decline, news sources become more fractured, so each segment of the audience can choose specifically what it wants to hear and what it wants to avoid. Increasingly, newspapers are shifting online in an attempt to remain relevant. It is hard to tell what impact new media platforms will have on the way we receive and process information.

Increasingly, newspapers are shifting online in an attempt to remain relevant. It is hard to tell what impact new media platforms will have on the way we receive and process information. The Pew Research Center’s Project for Excellence in Journalism (2013) reported that audiences for all the major news magazines declined in 2012, though digital ad revenue increased. The same report suggested that, while newspaper circulation is holding steady at around $10 billion after years of decline, it is digital pay plans that allow newspapers to keep their heads above water, and the digital ad revenue that is increasing for news magazines is not enough to compensate for print revenue loss in newspapers.

Questions & Answers

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Tohid Reply
Here is my email address Musharaf mubaraksaidu54@gmail. May we can exchange ideas and even materials for reading and so on
Mubarak
thank uh sir
musharaf
You are always welcome dude
Mubarak
🤗🤗
musharaf
plz. can any one explain me if I completed sociology which department I.will work for the government ?
Hasan
sociology is not all about to work for govt itz social work ...help the society to solve the problm
musharaf
i also in sociology dept
Munir
well my question is how can I get job if my country not like western countries and. I. finished this field
Hasan
plz unswer my question
Hasan
Are you studying just to get Job?
Mubarak
No I don't think so. But a the and all of us have to earn money to pay your living place etc.
Jannik
Exactly, but you have to understand one thing knowledge is power and whenever you have power you have money. Think as a Social Thinker
Mubarak
mubark sr r uh agreee with facult's ideology😁😁😁😁
musharaf
knowlge z piwer
musharaf
pls mubarak nd musharaf add me in ur email sirlehmuhid@gmail.com
Muhid
yep knowledge is power but when u r studing you first target is to get knowledge than when you finished u have to look job than support society in need and make problem solver
Hasan
Thx Hasan Muuse and Mubarak Saidu. Do you study sociology? And in which country?
Jannik
jannik no
Hasan
But you are interested in this topic :D
Jannik
yes I like it
Hasan
yes I like to study
Hasan
Nice :D
Jannik
ok thnks
Hasan
I love to study to very interesting facts im learning
Kayleigh
what is class struggle theory?
shahnam Reply
class struggle is all about the conflict between two sections of society, one is having the hold on resources plus all the capital outcomes of it(called bourgeois) whereas the other section is bound and compelled to serve the industries as a labourers or workers(called proletariats).
Lokesh
its a theory given by karl marx about bourgeois nd proletraits or have's nd havenot's respectively
musharaf
thanks
shahnam
sure ! welcome.
Lokesh
hii
Lalita
hi
shahnam
hlo
Zahid
Class struggle is all about Materialism in human society. The scarcity of it let people struggle. The have and the have not, as Marx said the bourgeois and Proletariat
Mubarak
What is cultural Shock, and cultural relativism
Mubarak
ok
eddie
mubark sir plz tell me about cultural shock
musharaf
Cultural shock is conditions of disorientation affecting someone who is suddenly exposed to an unfamiliar culture or way of life or set of attitude.
Mubarak
thank uh sir
musharaf
An example of cultural shock is, here in Nigeria there is a different cultures between southerners and northerners. So when a northerners visit South and saw southerner urinate while standing he feel abruptly and shock, because he is not familiar with this.
Mubarak
okh tysm
musharaf
Musharaf can you please tell me ur area of interest in sociology?
Mubarak
anyone have idea about contribution of classical theory of (karl marx,durkhiem,weber)on environmental sociology?
jumpe
im the girl im n intrested in gender ....feminism....i love redical feminist
musharaf
im also intrested in rural socoilogy
musharaf
because there r many problms in day to day life about about rural society nd gender
musharaf
Wao! Very well. I'm Industrial Sociologist
Mubarak
gooood
musharaf
I'm also a Functionalist and symbolic interaction
Mubarak
nyc
musharaf
wt about ur studies
musharaf
Because you knw Nigeria is a developing country so it's lack social analysts regarding to industrial planners. So that's why
Mubarak
I'm nw undergo my Masters degree in industrial sociology @University of Nigerian
Mubarak
nice thanks
manisha
what is meant by pattern variable
Akak
Your studies?
Mubarak
I don't study. I'm in Highschool in Germany :D
Jannik
Wao! Very Interesting
Mubarak
hello
Tohid
akak lego are u galo?
jumpe
sir i wish all ur dreams come true
musharaf
Hi Tohid
Mubarak
What have come today for
Mubarak
im doing master's degree in sociology from Jammu university
musharaf
Thank you so much Musharaf for ur prayer
Mubarak
Adi
Akak
👍
Tohid
Manisha u can
Akak
Is doing master in sociology a good opportunity to find later a good job where you like to go?
Jannik
akak sir pattern variable are 5 dichotomies dev. by tallcott parson to draw out the contrasting value to which individuals orient themselves in social interaction
musharaf
Pattern variable is a concept develop by Talcott person is trying to explain how social action
Mubarak
Good day guys
Mubarak
What is the main difference between census and survey?
Mustafa Reply
explain major contributions of Charles Wright Mills and Augusto Comte to the discipline of sociology
lugumba Reply
importance of sociology in logic if some one knows about plz help
Saqib
what are importance of studying sociology
Neema Reply
1 sociology detects and Solve Social Problems 2Sociology Helps in Planning and Development 3. Sociology makes a scientific study of Sociology 4 studies role of the institutions in the development of the individuals. 5 Helps in Preservation and Growth of Culture
manisha
6.sociology has made broaden the outlook of man. 7 Sociology is of great importance in the solution of international problems. 
manisha
what are feature of social institution
Muhid
eplayn philosopher of sociology
Mujahid Reply
explain philosopher of sociology
Mujahid
me
Ashebir
what is the difference between asocialist group on all definitions?
Koko Reply
what is the value of sociology
Banao Reply
What are the patterns of social interaction with regard to gender, religion and education
Norman Reply
define functionalist perspective
Jalil
what is cultural
nusrat Reply
culture is the way of life of a particular group of people
Philemon
culture is the backbone of society.
shahnam
culture consists of the beliefs' behaviour' objects' and other characteristics common to the members of particular group of society.
Zahid
culture is our way of life, customs ,traditions ,norms nd behavoiur
musharaf
can anyone explain what is socialogy as science in detail ?
Sydish Reply
sociology is a science because it adoptes and applies the scientific method . sociology does make a scientific method in the study of its subject matter.hence sociology is a science
Zahid
because its study the systematically about society
Akak
in secince we use tools such as thermometers telescopes microscope verniercliper etc similarly in sociology we tools interview questionare servey case study sampling etc so sociology is a science.
shahnam
scientific study of society is called sociology it involves scientific method, observation, hypothesis, experiments, and conclusions , this study produces theories and facts about society , that's why it is science
sohrab
explayn philosopher of socilogy
Mujahid
is caste system dangerous in politics? how
Zahid Reply
In present days the main caused for winning the election,after that they influence in any field
Akak
by those activities a father will become enemy to his son hence we should control it
Zahid
is it possible that marriage some places is being done between man's
Zahid Reply
No it is not possible.
umar_king
yeah itz hpns
musharaf
but in western some places it is possible as I considered a book there shows
Zahid
dear friends how then there born babies plz help me
Zahid
mee toooo
musharaf
dear friends I just know that there doesn't born babies
Zahid
they dont bother about thier offsprings nd it hpns in very rare cases in western societies
musharaf
ya right
Zahid
what is mean by ID
Bk Reply
what is counter culture
Jalil
what are the importance of social science on health care
Philemon Reply
the social sciences can contribute to preventing and treating illness by pinpointing the env.settings nd social relationships
musharaf

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Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to sociology 2e. OpenStax CNX. Jan 20, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11762/1.6
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