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The methods in the interface should control access to, or provide a pathway to the private instance variables.

Not bound to the implementation

The interface should be generic in that it is not bound to any particular implementation. Hence, the class author should be able to change theimplementation without affecting the using programs so long as the interface doesn't change.

In practice, this means that the signatures of the interface methods should not change, and that the interface methods and their arguments should continueto have the same meaning even if the author of the class changes the internal implementation.


I will present and explain a simple C# console program named Probs01 that illustrates encapsulation and C# properties in the remainder of this module. Theoutput from the program is shown in Figure 1 .

Figure 1 . Output from the program named Props01.

text: Quit color: Redcolor: Bad color height: 20double height: 40 height: 0

Discussion and sample code

Will explain in fragments

I will explain the code in this program in fragments. A complete listing of the program is provided in Listing 11 near the end of the module.

Two classes

The program contains two separate class definitions. One class, named TargetClass , illustrates encapsulation and properties. The other class named Props01 instantiates an object of TargetClass and exercises its interface. For simplicity, both classes were defined in thesame physical file, but that is not a requirement.

Will switch between classes

In an attempt to help you understand how the program works, I will switch back and forth between the two classes showing the cause and effect relationshipbetween the code in one class and the code in the other class.

Listing 1 . Beginning of the class named Props01.

using System; namespace Props01{class Props01{ static void Main(string[]args){ TargetClass obj = new TargetClass();//Access a public instance variable obj.text = "Quit";Console.WriteLine("text: " + obj.text);

The declarations

The first two statements in Listing 1 apply equally to both classes. The first statement "uses" the namespace named System . This eliminates the requirement to qualify every reference to the Console class with the name of the namespace containing the Console class.

The second statement in Listing 1 establishes the namespace for the new program code, which is actually the name of the folder containing the sourcecode file.

Beginning of the class named Props01

The class definition for the class named Props01 begins with the keyword class shown in Listing 1 .

As you will see when we get to the end of the explanation, the only thing that is contained in this class is the Main method. The required signature for the Main method is shown in Listing 1 . I'm not going to explain all of the ramifications for the syntax of the method signature. At this point, I will simply tell you to memorize thesyntax.

The first statement in the Main method uses the new operator to instantiate an object of the class named TargetClass and save a reference to that object in a local reference variable named obj . This reference will be used later to access the object.

Questions & Answers

Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Xna game studio. OpenStax CNX. Feb 28, 2014 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11634/1.6
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