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Learn about abstract methods, abstract classes, and overridden methods. You will also learn about overriding the toString method.

Revised: Sat Apr 02 20:33:36 CDT 2016

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Table of contents


This module is one of a series of modules designed to teach you about Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) using Java.

Viewing tip

I recommend that you open another copy of this document in a separate browser window and use the following links to easily find and view the Figures and Listings while you are reading about them.


  • Figure 1 . Program output on the command line screen.
  • Figure 2 . Default behavior of the toString method.
  • Figure 3 . More on the default behavior of the toString method.


  • Listing 1 . Source code for class Prob04.
  • Listing 2 . Beginning of the class named Prob04MyClass.
  • Listing 3 . Override the abstract getData method.
  • Listing 4 . Override the toString method.
  • Listing 5 . Complete program listing.


The program that I will explain in this module produces no graphics and does not require the use of Ericson's media library.

OOP concepts

The program illustrates the following OOP concepts:

  • Extending an abstract class.
  • Parameterized constructor.
  • Defining an abstract method in the superclass and overriding it in a subclass.
  • Overridden toString method.

Program specifications

Write a program named Prob04 that uses the class definition shown in Listing 1 to produce the output on the command-line screen shown in Figure 1 .

Figure 1 . Program output on the command line screen.
Prob04 DickBaldwin 9595

Pseudo random data

Because the program generates and uses a pseudo random data value each time it is run, the actual values displayed in the last two lines of Figure 1 will differ from one run to the next. However, in all cases, the two values must match.

New classes

You may define new classes as necessary to cause your program to behave as required, but you may not modify the class definition for the class named Prob04 given below.

Discussion and sample code

Will explain in fragments

I will explain this program in fragments. A complete listing is provided in Listing 5 near the end of the module.

I will begin with the driver class named Prob04 , which is shown in its entirety in Listing 1 .

Listing 1 . Source code for class Prob04.
import java.util.*; abstract class Prob04{public static void main(String[] args){Random generator = new Random(new Date().getTime()); int randomNumber = (byte)generator.nextInt();Prob04 objRef = new Prob04MyClass(randomNumber);System.out.println(objRef); System.out.println(objRef.getData());System.out.println(randomNumber); }//end main//Declare the signature of an abstract class. public abstract int getData();}//end class Prob04

The import directive

The import directive at the beginning of Listing 1 is required because the program requires access to the Random class and the Date class, both of which are defined in the java.util package.

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Object-oriented programming (oop) with java. OpenStax CNX. Jun 29, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11441/1.201
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