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Pre-oxidation cleaning

The first step in oxidizing a surface of silicon is the removal of the native oxide which forms due to exposure to open air. This may seem redundant to remove an oxide only to put on another, but this is necessary since uncertainty exists as to the purity of the oxide which is present. The contamination of the native oxide by both organic and inorganic materials (arising from previous processing steps and handling) must be removed to prevent the degradation of the essential electrical characteristics of the device. A common procedure uses a H 2 O-H 2 O 2 -NH 4 OH mixture which removes the organics present, as well as some group I and II metals. Removal of heavy metals can be achieved using a H 2 O-H 2 O 2 -HCl mixture, which complexes with the ions which are formed. After removal of the native oxide, the desired oxide can be grown. This growth is useful because it provides: chemical protection, conditions suitable for lithography, and passivation. The protection prevents unwanted reactions from occurring and the passivation fills vacancies of bonds on the surface not present within the interior of the crystal. Thus the oxidation of the surface of silicon fulfills several functions in one step.

Thermal oxidation

The growth of oxides on a silicon surface can be a particularly tedious process, since the growth must be uniform and pure. The thickness wanted usually falls in the range 50 - 500 Å, which can take a long time and must be done on a large scale. This is done by stacking the silicon wafers in a horizontal quartz tube while the oxygen source flows over the wafers, which are situated vertically in a slotted paddle (boat), see [link] . This procedure is performed at 1 atm pressure, and the temperature ranges from 700 to 1200 °C, being held to within ±1 °C to ensure uniformity. The choice of oxidation technique depends on the thickness and oxide properties required. Oxides that are relatively thin and those that require low charge at the interface are typically grown in dry oxygen. When thick oxides are required (>0.5 mm) are desired, steam is the source of choice. Steam can be used at wide range of pressures (1 atm to 25 atm), and the higher pressures allow thick oxide growth to be achieved at moderate temperatures in reasonable amounts of time.

Horizontal diffusion tube showing the oxidation of silicon wafers at 1 atm pressure.

The thickness of SiO 2 layers on a Si substrate is readily determined by the color of the film. [link] provides a guidline for thermal grown oxides.

Color chart for thermally grown SiO 2 films observed under daylight fluorescent lighting.
Film thickness (μm) Color Film thickness (μm) Color
0.05 tan 0.63 violet-red
0.07 brown 0.68 "bluish"
0.10 dark violet to red-violet 0.72 blue-green to gree
0.12 royal blue 0.77 "yellowish"
0.15 light blue to metallic blue 0.80 orange
0.17 metallic to light yellow-green 0.82 salmon
0.20 light gold 0.85 light red-violet
0.22 gold 0.86 violet
0.25 orange to melon 0.87 blue violet
0.27 red-violet 0.89 blue
0.30 blue to violet blue 0.92 blue-green
0.31 blue 0.95 yellow-green
0.32 blue to blue-green 0.97 yellow
0.34 light green 0.99 orange
0.35 green to yellow-green 1.00 carnation pink
0.36 yellow-green 1.02 violet red
0.37 green-yellow 1.05 red-violet
0.39 yellow 1.06 violet
0.41 light orange 1.07 blue-violet
0.42 carnation pink 1.10 green
0.44 violet-red 1.11 yellow-green
0.46 red-violet 1.12 green
0.47 violet 1.18 violet
0.48 blue-violet 1.19 red-violet
0.49 blue 1.21 violet-red
0.50 blue green 1.24 carnation pink to salmon
0.52 green 1.25 orange
0.54 yellow-green 1.28 "yellowish"
0.56 green-yellow 1.32 sky blue to green-blue
0.57 "yellowish" 1.40 orange
0.58 light orange to pink 1.46 blue-violet
0.60 carnation pink 1.50 blue

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry of electronic materials. OpenStax CNX. Aug 09, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10719/1.9
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