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Social sciences: geography

Grade 7

Population growth and changes

Module 9

Population growth and change: the impact of hiv/aids

One of the most important influences on change in the population is AIDS. Never in history has there been a human catastrophe of such proportions! The life expectancy of the total population decreases, children in their thousands become orphans, poverty increases, production in almost all sectors of the economy decreases, etc. Africa is the continent that has been affected the most, and South Africa has not been spared the catastrophy! As a whole, we are approaching a point where populations decrease instead of growth taking place.

1. Population

To ascertain the influence of AIDS on the population, it is necessary to look at a description of the population.

2. The ideal situation for which South Africa is striving

“A large portion of the South African population is poor and not adequately literate. South Africa must therefore make a serious attempt to alleviate poverty and bring literacy to an acceptable level. Another ideal for which to strive is to improve health services and to control population growth. Our resources, for example water, are limited.

As you will be able to deduce from the graph below, life expectancy has risen as a result of improved sanitation and medical care and the growth in population has decreased during the 20 years ranging between 1980 and 2000. The decrease in population growth can be ascribed partly to urbanisation. In South Africa the population has changed from a youthful population (with a rapid increase) to a more acceptable adult population with limited increase.

South Africa: Growth between 1980 and 2000

Southern African Development Community (SADC): Life expectancy in years

  • Improved medical care, hygiene, and a general improvement of living conditions in the SADC countries, has ensured an increase in life expectancy.
  • If you look at the graph you will note that a baby born in the late 1950’s in Namibia had a life expectancy of 40 years, while a baby born 40 years later can expect to live 20 years longer.

. . . . . . . . . and then the HIV/AIDS epidemic broke out. People who speak about the pandemic, rather than epidemic, are actually right, because the disease occurs right across the country, the continent and the rest of the world!

Aids: what does this mean?

  • The word is an acronym, and is composed of the first letters of A cquired I mmune D eficiency S yndrome. This means that a person has acquired a virus in his/her body, which destroys the body’s ability to build up immunity against disease.
  • When one has the virus, you are immediately HIV positive , but the virus may remain dormant and not affect the person’s health. Such a person may be able to live for years without being affected by this virus.
  • A good way to describe a person who is HIV positive is to take the letters HIV and use them backwards to say V irus I n H uman.
  • When the virus becomes active and starts affecting the person’s health, we say that the person has AIDS . Now we can use the S to indicate the person has a S ickness. He/she is no longer able to build up immunity to sicknesses and any sickness can have a serious effect on him/her.
  • A person acquires the virus by a blood transfusion, by means of sexual intercourse or where blood is mixed – a person’s blood on a razor blade or injection needle comes into contact with an open wound on someone else and the virus is transmitted to them. An expectant mother can also transmit the virus to her unborn baby. After the birth of the baby, the virus can be transmitted to the baby if it is breastfed.
  • If someone is tested for the virus and discovers that they are HIV positive, they can look after themselves and extend the dormant period of the virus by avoiding or decreasing the amount that they smoke and drink, by eating healthy foods, exercising regularly and getting sufficient rest and sleep.

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Geography grade 7. OpenStax CNX. Sep 09, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11021/1.1
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