<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Phalanges

The toes contain a total of 14 phalanx bones (phalanges), arranged in a similar manner as the phalanges of the fingers (see [link] ). The toes are numbered 1–5, starting with the big toe ( hallux    ). The big toe has two phalanx bones, the proximal and distal phalanges. The remaining toes all have proximal, middle, and distal phalanges. A joint between adjacent phalanx bones is called an interphalangeal joint.

View this link to learn about a bunion, a localized swelling on the medial side of the foot, next to the first metatarsophalangeal joint, at the base of the big toe. What is a bunion and what type of shoe is most likely to cause this to develop?

Arches of the foot

When the foot comes into contact with the ground during walking, running, or jumping activities, the impact of the body weight puts a tremendous amount of pressure and force on the foot. During running, the force applied to each foot as it contacts the ground can be up to 2.5 times your body weight. The bones, joints, ligaments, and muscles of the foot absorb this force, thus greatly reducing the amount of shock that is passed superiorly into the lower limb and body. The arches of the foot play an important role in this shock-absorbing ability. When weight is applied to the foot, these arches will flatten somewhat, thus absorbing energy. When the weight is removed, the arch rebounds, giving “spring” to the step. The arches also serve to distribute body weight side to side and to either end of the foot.

The foot has a transverse arch, a medial longitudinal arch, and a lateral longitudinal arch (see [link] ). The transverse arch forms the medial-lateral curvature of the mid-foot. It is formed by the wedge shapes of the cuneiform bones and bases (proximal ends) of the first to fourth metatarsal bones. This arch helps to distribute body weight from side to side within the foot, thus allowing the foot to accommodate uneven terrain.

The longitudinal arches run down the length of the foot. The lateral longitudinal arch is relatively flat, whereas the medial longitudinal arch is larger (taller). The longitudinal arches are formed by the tarsal bones posteriorly and the metatarsal bones anteriorly. These arches are supported at either end, where they contact the ground. Posteriorly, this support is provided by the calcaneus bone and anteriorly by the heads (distal ends) of the metatarsal bones. The talus bone, which receives the weight of the body, is located at the top of the longitudinal arches. Body weight is then conveyed from the talus to the ground by the anterior and posterior ends of these arches. Strong ligaments unite the adjacent foot bones to prevent disruption of the arches during weight bearing. On the bottom of the foot, additional ligaments tie together the anterior and posterior ends of the arches. These ligaments have elasticity, which allows them to stretch somewhat during weight bearing, thus allowing the longitudinal arches to spread. The stretching of these ligaments stores energy within the foot, rather than passing these forces into the leg. Contraction of the foot muscles also plays an important role in this energy absorption. When the weight is removed, the elastic ligaments recoil and pull the ends of the arches closer together. This recovery of the arches releases the stored energy and improves the energy efficiency of walking.

Questions & Answers

briefly explain the similarities between transcription and DNA replication
Emmanuel Reply
transcription copies DNA into RNA while replication makes another copy of DNA
Goode
A general explanation: Replication occurs when a copy of DNA is made. Transcription is the first step in the process of protein synthesis. Messenger RNA is made using a portion of the DNA molecule as a template.
Lessa
please what group is this?
Winifred
hello guys
PRINCE
Relationship between essential amino acids and immune response
Eunice
what is the main function of the pcn?
DAVID Reply
career in the health professions, respond appropriately to signs of illness, help you in your roles as a parent, spouse
Coach Reply
student would have an appreciation of the heart anatomy to give understanding of anatomy while opening ideas of function and physiology
Coach
study of the parts of the body
Coach
macro anatomy, study of big structures of the body that can be viewed with the naked eye
Coach
that is called gross anatomy
Patrick
what is integumentry
Amiebo Reply
chemical level cell level tissue level organs level organ system organism
sam Reply
when you sitting close to a campfire your sense smell adapts the smell but when the trace of smoke is introduced into your environments it becomes unsual for you
sam
I need to know mechanism of body fluid
johnson
OK but I need to know where are you coming from
johnson
ask how
Amiebo
oh ft, help out with integumentary system now
Amiebo
Pls give me a brief description of vetebra
Deborah Reply
7 cervical (c1 atlas and c2 axis help the neck rotate) 12 thoracic 5 lumbar 1 sacral and 2 coccyx
Anna
breakfast at 7, lunch at 12, and dinner at 5. sacrum holds 5, coccyx holds 4
Patrick
really there's just one coccyx and sacrum
Patrick
atlas like the Greek God holds the weight of the world on top of him
Patrick
elasticity of the vagina
Mariam Reply
The vagina is an elastic muscular wall
antouman
*organ
antouman
It has I think squamous cuboidal or maybe columnar epithelium designed for secretion, expansion and friction.
Patrick
how can you remember the integumentary system
Naomi Reply
integumentary system is the skin the skin is protection all the body and contain deid cells
Drs
how can you remember the formation of bone?
Maame
the largest organ of the body
Toni
skin is largest organ
Zara
what is the best way to remember the cranial bones or any other bones ?
Savannah
skeletal system?
Savannah
look at the diagram structure and then remember it considering it your own body i memorise like that
Zara
hi guys! do you have to remember ALL the structures of the bones- I mean every single hole, depression or tuberosity?
Kristina
tuborisity
Zara
hey guz i hv to remember Immune antibodies and antigens how? i found it difficult
Zara
well, they are all grouped, aren't they? I mean they all come in series like H1, H2A, H2B and so on. In this case I learn the common part first and then that what's different
Kristina
nd what about IgG , IgE etc.
Zara
the majors
Toni
the thin skin does not have stratum lucidium I believe
Patrick
acronyms
Patrick
if u know the bones, the muscle has part of the name of the bone in it
Patrick
epidermis, I believe epi means on top. dermis in the middle and hypodermis, hypo meaning below. the hypodermis is actually considered not part of the skin or int system
Patrick
big sweet guys love candy = basale, spinosum, granulosum, lucidum ( only in thick skin), corneum
Anna
I love it ☝🏾
Savannah
thank you Zara !
Savannah
can anyone send diet plan for asthma patients
waseem
is
Drs
hey
Daud
jam how are you
Daud
Hey guys l am Matrin
Matrin
blood is a connective tissue which transport oxygen and other nutrients to body
Zara Reply
which type of protein is blood?
Zara
what is blood?
Masthan Reply
blood is a connective tissue which transport oxygen and nutrients to body
Zara
which type of protein is blood?
Zara
haemoglobin
Rashid
and what about its structure i think its Quartenary structure 🤔💭
Zara
yes it is
Rashid
it is globular
Rashid
a vascular structure compose of vessels.
Toni
what is the functions of lymph
moula Reply
what is plasma
Chukwu Reply
A plasma is a hot ionized gas consisting of approximately af a equal number of positive ly charged ionized and negative ly charged electron is called plasma.
Muhammad
what is an atomical position?
Madinatu
military position, body erect where by the body will be up straight..the cephalic and thoracic are straight
Mwita
functions of plasma membrane
Dinyando Reply
what is heparin
Lawrence Reply
why is it anatomy
Tenacious Reply
hello
ASIMENU
hi
asare
hws life
Tenacious
anatomy is the scientific study of the body's structure
Lawrence
great
Lawrence
good night
Kaaya
anatomy is the study of form, physiology is the study of function
Patrick
anatomy is the study of the structure of the body and the physical relationship between it constituent part
Florence
what is heparin
Lawrence
what is the trunk
Tenacious
trunk is define as a person's or animal's body apart from the limp and head
Lawrence
The trunk is part of the axial skeleton
Patrick
hellow friends
mickson
hi friends
mickson
Hi
REEMA
hii
sampath
hi
Inayat
am fine
Ematai

Get the best Anatomy & Physiology course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Anatomy & Physiology' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask