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Mendeleev arranged the elements in the Periodic Table in order of increasing atomic number in horizontal rows of such length that elements with similar properties recur periodically; that is to say, they fall directly beneath each other in the Table. The elements in a given vertical column are referred to as a family or group. The physical and chemical properties of the elements in a given family change gradually as one goes from one element in the column to the next. By observing the trends in properties, the elements can be arranged in the order in which they appear in the Periodic Table.


I. activity series

Part 1. reactions of metals with water

CAUTION! Sodium reacts very rapidly with water to evolve hydrogen and heat. This is potentially dangerous because of the possibility of the violent explosive reaction of H 2 size 12{H rSub { size 8{2} } } {} (g) with O 2 size 12{O rSub { size 8{2} } } {} (g) present in the air.

CAUTION! Sodium causes severe chemical burns when it comes into contact with the skin. Note: Metallic sodium must be stored below the surface of an inert liquid such as kerosene to prevent oxidation by air.

  • I will demonstrate the reaction of sodium and then potassium with water. Observe the rate of evolution of H 2 size 12{H rSub { size 8{2} } } {} gas as I use tweezers to place a tiny pea-size piece of sodium then potassium into a 500-mL beaker full of deionised water. Record your observation on the Report Form and write a balanced equation for this reaction.
  •  Place 5 mL H 2 O size 12{H rSub { size 8{2} } O} {} in each of four clean tubes and label them as follows:
A. Mg
B. Cu
C. Zn
D. Ca
  • Use sandpaper or steel wool to remove the oxide from the surfaces of Mg, Cu, and Zn.
  • Place several small pieces of Mg, Cu, and Zn in the correctly labeled test tube prepared above. Place two or three (not more!) pieces of Ca turnings in the test tube labeled "Ca".
  • Watch for evidence of reaction by noting evolution of gas bubbles and any change in the color or size of the metal. Record your observations and write net ionic equations for each reaction.

 Note: Trapped air bubbles on the metal surfaces are not indicative of a reaction.

CAUTION: H 2 size 12{H rSub { size 8{2} } } {} is FLAMMABLE!

CAUTION: Residual calcium should be discarded in a special container designated by your instructor.

Note: Net ionic equations must balance in mass (atoms) and in total charge on each side of the equation.

Part 2. reactions of metals with hcl

CAUTION: The reaction of Ca with HCl is not studied. Residual calcium should be discarded in a special container designated by your instructor.

  • Decant the water from each test tube used in the procedure above and leave the pieces of metal that remain unreacted in each test tube.
  • Place the test tubes in a test tube rack/holder.
  • Add 2 mL of 3 M HCl solution to each test tube.

CAUTION: Some of the test tubes may become very hot. Leave them in the rack/holder while you are making observations.

  • Observe relative rate of H 2 size 12{H rSub { size 8{2} } } {} gas evolution for up to 10 minutes and record your observations on your report form.
  • Based on the observations in the previous steps, list the elements that react in 3M HCl in order of increasing strength as reducing agents and write net ionic equations for all reactions.

Questions & Answers

Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
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what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Honors chemistry lab fall. OpenStax CNX. Nov 15, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10456/1.16
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