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On the intermediate scale

  1. How do phase transitions take place on the microscopic scale ? We know a lot about phase transitions, such as water freezing, but the details of how they occur molecule by molecule are not well understood. Similar questions about specific heat a century ago led to early quantum mechanics. It is also an example of a complex adaptive system that may yield insights into other self-organizing systems.
  2. Is there a way to deal with nonlinear phenomena that reveals underlying connections ? Nonlinear phenomena lack a direct or linear proportionality that makes analysis and understanding a little easier. There are implications for nonlinear optics and broader topics such as chaos.
  3. How do high- T c size 12{T rSub { size 8{c} } } {} superconductors become resistanceless at such high temperatures ? Understanding how they work may help make them more practical or may result in surprises as unexpected as the discovery of superconductivity itself.
  4. There are magnetic effects in materials we do not understand—how do they work ? Although beyond the scope of this text, there is a great deal to learn in condensed matter physics (the physics of solids and liquids). We may find surprises analogous to lasing, the quantum Hall effect, and the quantization of magnetic flux. Complexity may play a role here, too.

On the smallest scale

  1. Are quarks and leptons fundamental, or do they have a substructure ? The higher energy accelerators that are just completed or being constructed may supply some answers, but there will also be input from cosmology and other systematics.
  2. Why do leptons have integral charge while quarks have fractional charge ? If both are fundamental and analogous as thought, this question deserves an answer. It is obviously related to the previous question.
  3. Why are there three families of quarks and leptons ? First, does this imply some relationship? Second, why three and only three families?
  4. Are all forces truly equal (unified) under certain circumstances ? They don’t have to be equal just because we want them to be. The answer may have to be indirectly obtained because of the extreme energy at which we think they are unified.
  5. Are there other fundamental forces ? There was a flurry of activity with claims of a fifth and even a sixth force a few years ago. Interest has subsided, since those forces have not been detected consistently. Moreover, the proposed forces have strengths similar to gravity, making them extraordinarily difficult to detect in the presence of stronger forces. But the question remains; and if there are no other forces, we need to ask why only four and why these four.
  6. Is the proton stable ? We have discussed this in some detail, but the question is related to fundamental aspects of the unification of forces. We may never know from experiment that the proton is stable, only that it is very long lived.
  7. Are there magnetic monopoles ? Many particle theories call for very massive individual north- and south-pole particles—magnetic monopoles. If they exist, why are they so different in mass and elusiveness from electric charges, and if they do not exist, why not?
  8. Do neutrinos have mass ? Definitive evidence has emerged for neutrinos having mass. The implications are significant, as discussed in this chapter. There are effects on the closure of the universe and on the patterns in particle physics.
  9. What are the systematic characteristics of high- Z size 12{Z} {} nuclei ? All elements with Z = 118 size 12{Z="118"} {} or less (with the exception of 115 and 117) have now been discovered. It has long been conjectured that there may be an island of relative stability near Z = 114 size 12{Z="114"} {} , and the study of the most recently discovered nuclei will contribute to our understanding of nuclear forces.

These lists of questions are not meant to be complete or consistently important—you can no doubt add to it yourself. There are also important questions in topics not broached in this text, such as certain particle symmetries, that are of current interest to physicists. Hopefully, the point is clear that no matter how much we learn, there always seems to be more to know. Although we are fortunate to have the hard-won wisdom of those who preceded us, we can look forward to new enlightenment, undoubtedly sprinkled with surprise.

Section summary

  • On the largest scale, the questions which can be asked may be about dark matter, dark energy, black holes, quasars, and other aspects of the universe.
  • On the intermediate scale, we can query about gravity, phase transitions, nonlinear phenomena, high- T c size 12{T rSub { size 8{c} } } {} superconductors, and magnetic effects on materials.
  • On the smallest scale, questions may be about quarks and leptons, fundamental forces, stability of protons, and existence of monopoles.

Conceptual questions

For experimental evidence, particularly of previously unobserved phenomena, to be taken seriously it must be reproducible or of sufficiently high quality that a single observation is meaningful. Supernova 1987A is not reproducible. How do we know observations of it were valid? The fifth force is not broadly accepted. Is this due to lack of reproducibility or poor-quality experiments (or both)? Discuss why forefront experiments are more subject to observational problems than those involving established phenomena.

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Discuss whether you think there are limits to what humans can understand about the laws of physics. Support your arguments.

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Questions & Answers

what are the calculations of Newton's third law of motiow
Murtala Reply
what is dark matter
apex Reply
(in some cosmological theories) non-luminous material which is postulated to exist in space and which could take either of two forms: weakly interacting particles ( cold dark matter ) or high-energy randomly moving particles created soon after the Big Bang ( hot dark matter ).
if the mass of a trolley is 0.1kg. calculate the weight of plasticine that is needed to compensate friction. (take g=10m/s and u=0.2)
Declan Reply
what is a galaxy
Maduka Reply
what isflow rate of volume
Abcd Reply
flow rate is the volume of fluid which passes per unit time;
flow rate or discharge represnts the flow passing in unit volume per unit time
When two charges q1 and q2 are 6 and 5 coulomb what is ratio of force
Mian Reply
When reducing the mass of a racing bike, the greatest benefit is realized from reducing the mass of the tires and wheel rims. Why does this allow a racer to achieve greater accelerations than would an identical reduction in the mass of the bicycle’s frame?
bimo Reply
is that the answer
why is it proportional
nehemiah Reply
i don't know
what are the relationship between distance and displacement
Usman Reply
They are interchangeable.
Distance is scalar, displacement is vector because it must involve a direction as well as a magnitude. distance is the measurement of where you are and where you were displacement is a measurement of the change in position
Thanks a lot
I'm beginner in physics so I can't reason why v=u+at change to v2=u2+2as and vice versa
what is kinematics
kinematics is study of motion without considering the causes of the motion
The study of motion without considering the cause 0f it
why electrons close to the nucleus have less energy and why do electrons far from the nucleus have more energy
thank you frds
plz what is the third law of thermodynamics
Chidera Reply
third law of thermodynamics states that at 0k the particles will collalse its also known as death of universe it was framed at that time when it waa nt posible to reach 0k but it was proved wrong
I have not try that experiment but I think it will magnet....
Rev Reply
Hey Rev. it will
I do think so, it will
yes it will
If a magnet is in a pool of water, would it be able to have a magnetic field?.
Stella Reply
yes Stella it would
formula for electric current
Chizzy Reply
what is that about pleace
what are you given?
what is current
Current is the flow of electric charge per unit time.
What are semi conductors
materials that allows charge to flow at varying conditions, temperature for instance.
these are materials which have electrical conductivity greater than the insulators but less than metal, in these materials energy band Gap is very narrow as compared to insulators
materials that allows charge to flow at varying conditions, temperature for instance.
wao so awesome
At what point in the oscillation of beam will a body leave it?
what is gravitational force
what is meant by the term law
Fahd Reply
what is physics
Timilehin Reply
it is branch of science that deal with interaction matter and energy is called physics . and physics is based in experiential observation and quentative measurement.
to briefly understand the concept of physics start with history and a brief history of time by Stephen hawkings is what made me have interest in physics
physics is a branch of science which deals with the study of matter, in relation to energy.
physics is a natural science that involve the study of matter and it's motion through space and time, along with related concept such as energy and force
Physics is the science of natural things. for instance, take classical laws which describe the principles of working of the macro realm and then take the quantum laws which describe the quantum realm. It relates everything in this universe –e. g when you see anything, actually photons penetrate.
why do isotopes of the same group undergo the same chemical reactions ?

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