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Sosiale wetenskappe: aardrykskunde

Graad 9

Volhoubare gebruik van hulpbronne

Module 6

Die beginsels van agenda 21

AGENDA 21

1. Die beginsels van Agenda 21

Aktiwiteit 1:

Om die belang van hulpbronne , die volhoubare benutting daarvan en ons almal se verantwoordelikheid in dié verband, te ondersoek

[lu 1.3]

Lees die volgende stukke oor Agenda 21 en beantwoord dan die vrae.

Agenda 21 Wêreldwyd en die Plaaslike Agenda 21

Agenda 21 is ‘n wêreldwye aksieplan vir ontwikkeling wat sosiaal, ekonomies en omgewingsgewys volhoubaar is. Die term “volhoubaar” beteken dat ontwikkeling volgehou of voortgesit kan word sonder om die aarde se natuurlike bronne daardeur uit te put. Hierdie aksieplan is in 1992 aanvaar by die Verenigde Nasies se konferensie oor die Omgewing en Ontwikkeling wat in Rio de Janeiro plaasgevind het. Probeer hierdie stad op ‘n wêreldkaart vind, en onthou in watter staat en op watter vasteland dit geleë is. Die doel van Agenda 21 is om beginsels en programme op te stel vir ‘n beter balans tussen ontwikkeling en die aarde se natuurlike hulpbronne . Alle ontwikkeling is daarvan afhanklik. Die konferensie het voorgestel dat die beginsels van Agenda 21 wêreldwyd op plaaslike vlak toegepas word. Hierdie praktiese implementerings-program staan bekend as Plaaslike Agenda 21 .

Die Plaaslike Agenda 21- Mandaat

Teen 1996, behoort die meeste plaaslike owerhede in elke land ‘n konsultatiewe proses met hul bevolkings te voltooi, en konsensus oor ‘n plaaslike Agenda 21 vir die gemeenskap bereik het.

Plaaslike Agenda 21 in Suid-Afrika

Kry eers duidelikheid oor die term “plaaslik”. As deel van ons eie heropbou- en ontwikkelingsprogram het die drie grootste stede in Suid-Afrika (Johannesburg, Kaapstad en Durban) almal in 1994/95 in ooreenstemming met die Plaaslike Agenda 21 -mandaat, hul eie Plaaslike Agenda 21 -programme begin. Hierdie vroeë programme het ‘n wye reeks aktiwiteite dwarsoor die land aan die gang gesit, sodat ander dorpe en stede soos Kimberley, Port Elizabeth, Oos-Londen, Pretoria en Pietermaritzburg, ook hul eie Plaaslike Agenda 21 -programme begin het. Op provinsiale vlak het provinsies soos KwaZulu-Natal en Limpopo veldtogte geloods om te verseker dat plaaslike owerhede op groot skaal betrokke raak by die Plaaslike Agenda 21 - planne. In 1998 is ‘n Nasionale Plaaslike Agenda 21 deur die Departement van Omgewingsake en Toerisme geloods om aktiwiteite oor die hele land te ondersteun, te koördineer en in een groot netwerk saam te snoer.

Beginsels vir Plaaslike Agenda 21 in Suid-Afrika

► Mensgesentreerde ontwikkeling. (Fokus op opleiding en bemagtiging van mense, soos...?)

► Voorsiening in basiese behoeftes (verskaf geriewe en dienste wat mense die heel nodigste het, soos...?)

► Geïntegreerde beplanning en ontwikkeling i.p.v. van ‘n sektor-gebaseerde benadering. (Die hele gebied en sy mense word saam ontwikkel, nie net sekere aspekte nie, bv....?)

► Volhoubare ontwikkeling. (Die omgewing en bronne word nie benadeel deur langdurige ontwikkeling nie

Plaaslike Agenda 21 in Durban

Durban se Plaaslike Agenda 21 (LA21) -program is met die aanstelling van die stad se eerste Omgewingsbestuurder in 1994 van stapel gestuur. ‘n Spesiale afdeling is in 1995 vir dié doel gestig.

Questions & Answers

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s. Reply
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are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
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That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
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Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
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CYNTHIA
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s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
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s.
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SUYASH
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s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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Cied
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Porter
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AMJAD
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Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
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AMJAD
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AMJAD
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Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
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I'm interested in Nanotube
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Source:  OpenStax, Aardrykskunde graad 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 14, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11054/1.1
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