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Reaction energy

Endothermic reaction

Exothermic reaction

Although we will not show it here, kinetic molecular theory shows that the fraction of molecules with energygreater than E a at temperature T is proportional to E a R T . This means that the reaction rate and therefore also the rateconstant must be proportional to E a R T . Therefore we can write

k T A E a R T
where A is a proportionality constant. If we take the logarithm of both sides of , we find that
k T E a R T A
This equation matches the experimentallyobserved . We recall that a graph of k versus 1 T is observed to be linear. Now we can see that the slope of that graph is equal to E a R .

As a final note on , the constant A must have some physical significant. We have accounted for the probability ofcollision between two molecules and we have accounted for the energetic requirement for a successful reactive collision. We havenot accounted for the probability that a collision will have the appropriate orientation of reactant molecules during the collision.Moreover, not every collision which occurs with proper orientation and sufficient energy will actually result in a reaction. There areother random factors relating to the internal structure of each molecule at the instant of collision. The factor A takes account for all of these factors, and is essentially the probability that a collision with sufficient energy for reactionwill indeed lead to reaction. A is commonly called the frequency factor .

Observation 4: rate laws for more complicated reaction processes

Our collision model in the previous section accounts for the concentration and temperature dependence of thereaction rate, as expressed by the rate law. The concentration dependence arises from calculating the probability of the reactantmolecules being in the same vicinity at the same instant. Therefore, we should be able to predict the rate law for anyreaction by simply multiplying together the concentrations of all reactant molecules in the balanced stoichiometric equation. Theorder of the reaction should therefore be simply related to the stoichiometric coefficients in the reaction. However, shows that this is incorrect for many reactions.

Consider for example the apparently simple reaction

2 I Cl ( g ) + H 2 ( g ) 2 H Cl ( g ) + I 2 ( g )
Based on the collision model, we would assume that the reaction occurs by 2 I Cl molecules colliding with a single H 2 molecule. The probability for such a collision should be proportional to [ I Cl ] 2 [ H 2 ] . However, experimentally we observe (see ) that the rate law for this reaction is
Rate k [ I Cl ] [ H 2 ]
As a second example, consider the reaction
N O 2 ( g ) + C O ( g ) N O ( g ) + C O 2 ( g )
It would seem reasonable to assume that this reaction occurs as a single collision in which an oxygen atom isexchanged between the two molecules. However, the experimentally observed rate law for this reaction is
Rate k [ N O 2 ] 2
In this case, the [ C O ] concentration does not affect the rate of the reaction at all, and the [ N O 2 ] concentration is squared. These examples demonstrate that the rate law for a reaction cannot be predicted from the stoichiometriccoefficients and therefore that the collision model does not account for the rate of the reaction. There must be somethingseriously incomplete with the collision model.

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
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Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
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Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Concept development studies in chemistry. OpenStax CNX. Dec 06, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10264/1.5
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