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One thing we have failed to take into consideration is that these phase transitions involve changes of energy and thus heat flow. Condensation of gas to liquid and freezing of liquid to solid both involve evolution of heat. This heat flow is of consequence because our observations also revealed that the entropy of a substance can be significantly increased by elevating its temperature.

One way to preserve our conclusions about spontaneity and entropy is to place a condition on their validity: a spontaneous process produces the final state of greatest probability and entropy provided that the process does not involve the evolution of heat. This is an unsatisfying result, however, since most physical and chemical processes involve heat transfer. As an alternative, we can force the process not to evolve heat by isolating the system undergoing the process: no heat can be released if there is no sink to receive the heat, and no heat can be absorbed if there is no source of heat. Therefore, we conclude from our observations that, for a spontaneous process in an isolated system the entropy always increases and leads us to the final state of greatest probability and entropy. This is one statement of the Second Law of Thermodynamics:

∆S>0 spontaneous process in an isolated system

It is interesting to consider one particular “isolated system,” which is the entire universe. Since no energy or matter can transfer in or out of the universe, the universe qualifies as “isolated.” So, another statement of the Second Law of Thermodynamics is:

∆S universe >0 for any spontaneous process

Though interesting and quite general, this statement is not yet all that useful because calculating S for the entire universe seems very difficult. In the next Concept Development Study, we will develop a means to do that calculation fairly easily.

Observation 4: heat transfer and entropy changes

We will begin with a simple and common observation about heat flow. Let’s take two pieces of metal of the same mass. It doesn’t matter what type of metal or what mass, so let’s say 100.0 g of copper. Let’s heat one of the samples (call it sample A) to 100 ºC and cool the other (call it sample B) to 0 ºC. Then let’s place them in contact with each other but insulated from everything surrounded them. We know from everyday experience what is going to happen, but of course, when we run the experiment, the cold metal B warms up, the hot metal A cools off, and both pieces of metal stop changing temperature only when they come to the same temperature, in this case, 50 ºC. We say that they have reached “thermal equilibrium.”

The approach to thermal equilibrium is clearly a spontaneous process: it happens automatically, and indeed there is nothing we can do to stop it other than to isolate the two pieces of metal from each other. Since this is a spontaneous process and since we isolated the two pieces of metal from their surroundings, then the work of the previous study tells us that, in total for system consisting of the two pieces of metal, ∆S>0.

Questions & Answers

The eyes of some reptiles are sensitive to 850 nm light. If the minimum energy to trigger the receptor at this wavelength is 3.15 x 10-14 J, what is the minimum number of 850 nm photons that must hit the receptor in order for it to be triggered?
razzyd Reply
A teaspoon of the carbohydrate sucrose contains 16 calories, what is the mass of one teaspoo of sucrose if the average number of calories for carbohydrate is 4.1 calories/g?
ifunanya Reply
4. On the basis of dipole moments and/or hydrogen bonding, explain in a qualitative way the differences in the boiling points of acetone (56.2 °C) and 1-propanol (97.4 °C), which have similar molar masses
Kyndall Reply
Calculate the bond order for an ion with this configuration: (?2s)2(??2s)2(?2px)2(?2py,?2pz)4(??2py,??2pz)3
Gabe Reply
Which of the following will increase the percent of HF that is converted to the fluoride ion in water? (a) addition of NaOH (b) addition of HCl (c) addition of NaF
Tarun Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Concept development studies in chemistry 2013. OpenStax CNX. Oct 07, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11579/1.1
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