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As a cautionary note, the results from the previous Concept Development Study make it clear that not every rate law is as simple as the one for the reaction of O 3 with Cl. We will return to this topic in a later section.

Observation 2: temperature dependence of reaction rates

How is the effect of temperature change on the reaction rate reflected in the rate law equation? Recall that a rate law shows the dependence of the reaction rate on reactant concentrations, e.g. the rate of reaction of I 2 gas with H 2 as described in Equation (3) gas is given by the rate law in Equation (4).

H 2 (g) + I 2 (g) → 2HI(g)

Rate = k[H 2 ][I 2 ]

One possibility for the increase in the rate of this reaction when temperature is increased is that there is a slight dependence on temperature of the concentrations, since volumes do vary with temperature. However, this is insufficient to account for the dramatic changes in rate typically observed. Therefore, the temperature dependence of the reaction rate is primarily found in the rate constant, k . The rate constant of this reaction at each temperature can be found using the Method of Initial Rates, as discussed in the previous study, and we find in Table 1 that the rate constant increases dramatically as the temperature increases.

Rate constant for H 2 (g) + I 2 (g)
T(K) k (1/M∙sec)
667 6.8×10 -3
675 9.87×10 -3
700 3.00×10 -2
725 8.43×10 -2
750 2.21×10 -1
775 5.46×10 -1
800 1.27

As shown in Figure 1, the rate constant appears to increase exponentially with temperature. After a little experimentation with the data, we find in Figure 2 that there is a simple linear relationship between ln( k ) and 1/T.

From Figure 2, we can see that the data in Table 1 fit the equation

ln (k) = a 1 T + b

where a and b are constant for this reaction. It turns out that, for our purposes, all reactions have rate constants that fit Equation (5), but with different constants a and b for each reaction. Figure 2 is referred to as an Arrhenius plot, after Svante Arrhenius.

It is not obvious why this equation should work for every chemical reaction. When we remember that the temperature is related to energy, it would seem that exothermic reactions and endothermic reactions should have different temperature dependence. Since they do not, this suggests that temperature increases and corresponding energy increases are not connected to the overall energy change of a reaction. This will lead us to a model to account for the temperature dependence of the rate constant. We will develop this further later in the next section.

Observation 3: activation energy

Equation (5) is very convenient for describing the temperature dependence of a reaction. However, we would like some insight into why the temperature dependence should obey Equation (5), and in particular, into the meaning of the constants a and b in the equation.

As noted at the end of the last section, Equation (5) describes the rate constant temperature dependence regardless of whether the reaction is endothermic or exothermic. Therefore, whatever the energetic factor is that is required for the reaction to occur, it is not just that the reaction is endothermic. Exothermic reactions apparently require energy as well. It must be that all reactions, regardless of the overall change in energy, require energy to occur.

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
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Sherica
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Sherica
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Tamia
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a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
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Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
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Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
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Rachael Reply
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Asali
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Samantha
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
Asali
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
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Porter
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Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
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Azam
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Concept development studies in chemistry 2013. OpenStax CNX. Oct 07, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11579/1.1
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