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Back to Africa: 1000 to 700 B.C.

Northeast africa

Overpopulation in Yemen, on the Arabian Peninsula, forced bands of Arabs to cross the Red Sea and settle on the northeastern edge of the Ethiopian plateau. They were good farmers and irrigators and got along well with the local Cushitic speaking people who had a similar degree of culture. (Ref. 83 ) There is some evidence that Phoenicians, with the Egyptian pharaoh's support, were making sailing trips south out of the Red Sea at this time, and perhaps they even circumnavigated Africa.

Early in the century, the Assyrians under General Esarhaddon, then at the height of his power, swept down and subjected priest-ridden Egypt to tribute and restricted the kings of the 25th (Kushite) dynasty to the country upriver from Thebes. Esarhaddon put Necho, local prince of Sais, in control of the delta region, but subsequently Necho's son, Psammeticus I broke away from the Assyrians and re-established an independent Egyptian kingdom again (26th dynasty-655 B.C.) and even pushed the Nubians and Kushites out of upper Egypt. The chief contribution of the Assyrians to this region was the introduction of iron, which soon spread up the Nile, as the Kushites, retiring back to their capital at Napata, took the knowledge of iron for weapons and tools with them. (Ref. 136 , 83 , 28 , 175 , 213 )

In mid-century there were many Greek immigrants to Egypt, including mercenaries, colonists and traders. New crops were introduced such as figs from Turkey, vines from Greece, sheep from Arabia and pigs from Sicily. Currency replaced barter and caravan routes were developed. Slave labor was used in mines and quarries. After 609 B.C. Pharaoh Necho (also Niku II) attempted to run a wide canal from the Nile to the Red Sea and expended the lives of some 120,000 men in the process, but it was never completed. Necho also had an army conquer Palestine, but the Babylonians ran them out after about four years. (Ref. 83 )

North central and northwest africa

Cyrene, Libya, was the site of an important Spartan Greek colony by about 630 B.C. Carthage had contined to develop and had iron-working in its various settlements, a skill which then crossed the desert through trans-Saharan trade routes. It was at this period that the Assyrians were attacking the Phoenician homeland, and Carthage became increasingly more important as a center for that civilization. Gradually the Carthaginian or Punic dialect and alphabet came to differ from that of the Lebanese Phoenicians. By the end of the century Carthage was receiving Etruscan metals and pottery. Some of the latter was of truly Italian origin and some imitations of Corinthian ceramics. (Ref. 8 , 66 , 75 )

Subsaharan africa

On the west side of Africa there was further climatic deterioration after 700 B.C. The spread of people down the Rift Valley into east Africa continued and both cattle and sheep were kept. The central and southern regions had little change from the situation described in the last chapter.

Forward to Africa: 600 to 501 B.C.

Questions & Answers

Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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