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Back to Africa: 1000 to 700 B.C.

Northeast africa

Overpopulation in Yemen, on the Arabian Peninsula, forced bands of Arabs to cross the Red Sea and settle on the northeastern edge of the Ethiopian plateau. They were good farmers and irrigators and got along well with the local Cushitic speaking people who had a similar degree of culture. (Ref. 83 ) There is some evidence that Phoenicians, with the Egyptian pharaoh's support, were making sailing trips south out of the Red Sea at this time, and perhaps they even circumnavigated Africa.

Early in the century, the Assyrians under General Esarhaddon, then at the height of his power, swept down and subjected priest-ridden Egypt to tribute and restricted the kings of the 25th (Kushite) dynasty to the country upriver from Thebes. Esarhaddon put Necho, local prince of Sais, in control of the delta region, but subsequently Necho's son, Psammeticus I broke away from the Assyrians and re-established an independent Egyptian kingdom again (26th dynasty-655 B.C.) and even pushed the Nubians and Kushites out of upper Egypt. The chief contribution of the Assyrians to this region was the introduction of iron, which soon spread up the Nile, as the Kushites, retiring back to their capital at Napata, took the knowledge of iron for weapons and tools with them. (Ref. 136 , 83 , 28 , 175 , 213 )

In mid-century there were many Greek immigrants to Egypt, including mercenaries, colonists and traders. New crops were introduced such as figs from Turkey, vines from Greece, sheep from Arabia and pigs from Sicily. Currency replaced barter and caravan routes were developed. Slave labor was used in mines and quarries. After 609 B.C. Pharaoh Necho (also Niku II) attempted to run a wide canal from the Nile to the Red Sea and expended the lives of some 120,000 men in the process, but it was never completed. Necho also had an army conquer Palestine, but the Babylonians ran them out after about four years. (Ref. 83 )

North central and northwest africa

Cyrene, Libya, was the site of an important Spartan Greek colony by about 630 B.C. Carthage had contined to develop and had iron-working in its various settlements, a skill which then crossed the desert through trans-Saharan trade routes. It was at this period that the Assyrians were attacking the Phoenician homeland, and Carthage became increasingly more important as a center for that civilization. Gradually the Carthaginian or Punic dialect and alphabet came to differ from that of the Lebanese Phoenicians. By the end of the century Carthage was receiving Etruscan metals and pottery. Some of the latter was of truly Italian origin and some imitations of Corinthian ceramics. (Ref. 8 , 66 , 75 )

Subsaharan africa

On the west side of Africa there was further climatic deterioration after 700 B.C. The spread of people down the Rift Valley into east Africa continued and both cattle and sheep were kept. The central and southern regions had little change from the situation described in the last chapter.

Forward to Africa: 600 to 501 B.C.

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
I'm not good at math so would you help me
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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