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Back to Africa: A.D. 101 to 200

Northeastern africa

The kingdom of Kush fell prey to desert nomads but in Ethiopia Axum continued as a powerful, well developed entity. Coins were minted and much of the Sudan to the west was conquered. Ivory, rhinoceros horn, hippopotamus hides and slaves were all exported through the Red Sea harbor of Adulis. Unfortunately even at this early period excessive rains with flooding, along with forest clearing and cultivation of hilltops and slopes had started soil erosion that was to eventually be part of the downfall of this unusual kingdom. (Ref. 175 , 270 )

Egyptian prestige

Diophantus, a Greek of Alexandria, wrote a treatise of algebra, solving determinant quadratic and indeterminate equations up to the 6th degree, in about A.D. 250.
began to decline under destructive factionalism, a massacre of all adult males capable of bearing arms (by Emperor Caracalla) to prevent revolt, high taxes, listless forced labor and Rome's annual exaction of grain. Sea trade from the Mediterranean went principally up the Nile to Thebes, then over to the Red Sea and on by boat. The refurbished Nile-Red Sea canal was a disappointment to the Romans (as it had been to the Ptolemies and the Persians) because winds in the northern Red Sea were unreliable and merchants did better with the Nile to Thebes route. At the last of the century (266 to 272), Queen Zenobia's conquering of Egypt and siege of Alexandria resulted in the death of half the population and helped Egypt's decline. (See IRAQ AND SYRIA, below) In A.D. 272 Egypt was reconquered by Rome. (Ref. 136 )

North central and northwestern africa

Rome continued to dominate the coast line of north Africa, but in the far northwest Moorish (chiefly Berber) culture and activity increased with expansion of the territory they controlled. The cities of the Sahara had a flourishing commerce with coastal cities, probably sending precious stones, slaves and ivory for trade. (Ref. 83 )

Subsaharan africa

At this time there was the beginning of the development of the Empire of Ghana at the northern curve of the Niger River. The village of Jenne-jeno, which we have previously mentioned, may have been a part of this process. On the east the iron and cattle cultures spread almost completely to the southern tip of Africa. Blackburn was established in A.D. 105 and the use of iron spread from the Funa River (off the Congo) to Katanga and the Lakes region. In the southwest, the Khoikoi peoples, speaking the Khoisan language, only slowly gave way to the aggressive Bantu-speakers. Indonesian traders appeared in increasing numbers along the east coast in this and the following centuries.

Forward to Africa: A.D. 301 to 400

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Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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