<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Non-positive or non-significant findings related to class size studies

Not all researchers have determined positive significance related to class size. For example, Jiang and Ting (2000) analyzed 19 online courses and compared class size to variables of students’ perceptions of (a) achievement, (b) level of interaction with the instructor, and (c) level of interaction with other students, as well as the number of notes written by the instructor. No significant correlations were found between class size and any of the four variables listed. Arbaugh and Duray (2001) found that class section size was negatively associated with student learning using a sample of courses with enrollments of up to 50 students. In other studies with class sizes of 30 or fewer students, it has been determined that class size was not a significant predictor of student learning or satisfaction (Arbaugh, 2002). Drago and Peltier (2004) studied the effect of class size on the evaluation of teaching effectiveness. The class sizes among 31 online business courses ranged from 22 students to 83 students. They determined that size had little impact on overall course effectiveness; however, data were limited by a potential non-response bias in that only 53% of the students returned the survey.

Concluding remarks

Only a handful of researchers since 2000 have attempted to determine optimum class size in online courses. Of those published studies, perhaps only one or two of the studies can be considered generalizable. This is the first gap in knowledge—a lack of generalizable studies published for consumption and adoption. Numbers of students in online sections, based on anecdotal data (excluding extreme outliers) appear to mirror the numbers of class sizes reported within the available studies as noted in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Numbers of students in online classes mentioned in anecdotal and research studies with the exception of major outliers of over 2000.

More stringent research studies are needed in terms of understanding the optimum number of students for an online class. The second gap in knowledge, therefore, is the need for the development of a formula for determining optimum class size under specific and varied conditions in higher education. Probably most important to the research of online class size is the impact it is having on learning outcomes. That represents a third gap in knowledge related to online class size. Finally, since this review is appearing in a handbook related to the educational administration discipline, we must add a fourth gap. There are no researchers who have provided data, to date, on class size optimization in educational administration programs. Certainly, these gaps in the literature on online class size are-- as Li and Irby (2006) indicated-- “undiscovered territory waiting to be explored” (p. 457).

References

  • Achilles, C. A. (1999) Let’s put kids first, finally: Getting class size right . Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
  • Aragon, S. (2003). Creating social presence in online environments. New Directors for Adult and Continuing Education 100 , 57-68.
  • Arbaugh, J. B. (2002). Managing the on-line classroom: A study of technological and behavioral characteristics of web-based MBA courses. Journal of High Technology Management Research, 13, 203-223.
  • Armario, C. (2012). State higher education spending sees big decline. The Associated Press. Retrieved from (External Link)
  • American Federation of Teachers. (2003). Technology review: Key trends, bargaining strategies and educational issues. Retrieved from (External Link)
  • Arbuagh, J. B.,&Duray, R. (2001). Class section size, perceived classroom characteristics, instructor experience, and student learning and satisfaction with web-based courses: A study and comparison of two on-line MBA programs. In D. Nagao (Ed. ), Academy of Management Best Papers Proceedings . Retrieved March 7, 2004, from (External Link)&hl=em&ie=utf-8
  • Boettcher, J. V. (2006a). How many students are just right in a web course? Design for Learning. Retrieved from (External Link)
  • Boettcher, J. V. (1999, revised 2006b). Cyber course size: Pedagogy and politics Retrieved from (External Link)
  • Brewer, D., Krop, C., Gill. B. P.,&, Reichardt, R. (1999) .Estimating the cost of national class Size reductions under different policy alternatives. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 21 (2), 179-192.
  • Burruss, N.M., Billings, D., Brownrigg, V., Skiba, D.,&Connors, H.R., (2009). Class size as related to the use of technology, educational practices, and outcomes in web-based nursing courses. Journal of Professional Nursing, 25(1), 33-41.
  • Colwell, J. L.&Jenks, C. F. (2004). The upper limit: the issues for faculty in setting class size in online courses. Retrieved from http://www.ipfw.edu/tohe/Papers/Nov%2010/015__the%20upper%20limit.pdf
  • Cook, D. J., Mulrow, C. D.,&Haynes, R. B. (1997). Synthesis of best evidence for clinical decisions. Annals of Internal Medicine, 126 (5), 376-380.
  • Davies, P. (2000). The relevance of systematic reviews to educational policy and practice. Oxford Review of Education, 26(3&4), 365-378 .
  • DeSantis, N. (2012). Tenured professor departs Stanford U., Hoping to teach 500,000 students at online start-up. Wired Campus. The Chronicle of Higher Education . Retrieved from http://chronicle.com/blogs/wiredcampus/tenured-professor-departs-stanford-u-hoping-to-teach-500000-students-at-online-start-up/35135?sid=wc&utm_source=wc&utm_medium=en
  • DiBiase, D.,&Rademacher, H. (2005). Scaling up: How increasing enrollments affect faculty and students in an asynchronous online course in geographic information science. Journal of Geography in Higher Education , 29 (1), 141-160.
  • Drago, W.,&Peltier, J. (2004). The effects of class size on effectiveness of online courses. Management Research News, 27 (10) 27 – 41. Retrieved from http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/01409170410784310
  • Dykman, C. A.,&Davis, C. K. (2008). Online education forum: Part three: A quality online educational experience. Journal of Information Systems Education, 19 (3), 281-290.
  • Foerster, S. (2011). Does size matter? The eLearners News Blog . Retrieved from http://community.elearners.com/all_blogs/the_elearners_news_blog/b/elearnersnews/archive/2011/12/07/does-size-matter.aspx
  • Hacker, H. (2011). Several Texas colleges are using private recruiters for online classes. Dallas Morning News. Retrieved from http://www.dallasnews.com/news/education/headlines/ 20110605-several-texas-colleges-are-using-private-recruiters-for-online-classes.ece
  • Hewitt, J.,&Brett, C. (2007). The relationship between class size and online activity patterns in asynchronous computer conference environments. Computers&Educaiton 49 , 1258-1271.
  • Hislop, G. W. (2001). Does teaching online take more time? Paper presented at the 31st ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference, Reno NV, Session TIF. Retrieved from http://www.computer.org/portal/web/csdl/doi/10.1109/FIE.2001.963858
  • Howard, D. (2002) Enhanced by technology, Not diminished. New York , NY: McGraw-Hill.
  • Intel. (2005). Moore’s law. Retrieved from ftp://download.intel.com/museum/Moores_Law/Printed_Materials/Moores_Law_2pg.pdf
  • IPFW. (2008). Distance and online learning at IPFW task force report and recommendations (Indiana University-Purdue University Fort Wayne). Retrieved from http://new.ipfw.edu/dotAsset/183259.pdf
  • Kingma, B.,&Keefe, S. (2006). An analysis of the virtual classroom: does size matter? Do residencies make a difference? Should you hire that instructional designer? Journal Of Education For Library&Information Science , 47 (2), 127-143.
  • Jiang, M.,&Tiong, E. (2000). A study of factors influencing students’ perceived learning in a web-based course environment. International Journal of Educational Telecommunications, 6 (4), 317-338.
  • Kerr, A. (2011). Teaching and learning in large classes at Ontario universities: An exploratory study. Toronto, CA: Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario. Retrieved from http://www.heqco.ca/SiteCollectionDocuments/Teaching%20and%20Learning%20in%20Large%20Classes%20ENG.pdf
  • Kim, K. J.,&Bonk, C. J. (2006). The future of online teaching and learning in higher education: The survey says. Educause Quarterly, 29 (4), 22-30. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/EDUCAUSE+Quarterly/EDUCAUSEQuarterlyMagazineVolum/TheFutureofOnlineTeachingandLe/157426
  • Krueger, A. B., (2000). The class size policy debate: Understanding the magnitude and effect of class size on student achievement. Working Paper No. 121 . Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute. Retrieved from http://epi.3cdn.net/aa2f4bcd5fb7ed5d53_3sm6b5jsf.pdf
  • Lederman, D. (20011). An unusual conference. Inside Higher Education . Retrieved from http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2011/10/07/future_of_state_universities_conference_promotes_online_learning
  • Li, C.,&Irby, B. (2008). An overview of online education: Attractiveness, benefits, challenges, concerns, and recommendations. College Student Journal, 42 , 449‐458.
  • Lunenburg, F. C.,&Irby, B. J. (2008). Writing a successful thesis or dissertation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
  • National Center for Education Statistics. (2011). Digest of education statistics, 2010 (NCES 2011-015), Introduction and Chapter 2. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=28
  • National Education Association. (2000). A survey of traditional and distance learning Higher education members . Retrieved from (External Link) DistanceLearningFacultyPoll.pdf
  • National Education Association. (2001). Focus on distance education. Update, 7 (2). Retrieved from http://www.nea.org/assets/docs/HE/ResearchUpdateFocusDistanceEd.pdf
  • National Science Board (2012). Science and engineering indicators 2012 Retrieved from http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/seind12/
  • Oestmann, E.,&Oestmann, J. (2006). Significant difference in learning outcomes and online class size. Journal of Online Educators, 2 (1), 1-8.
  • Orellana, A. (2006). Class size and interaction in online courses. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 7 (3), 229–248.
  • Parry, M. (2010). Online, bigger classes may be better classes. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved from http://chronicle.com/article/Open-Teaching-When-the/124170
  • Qui, M. (2010). A mixed methods study of class size and group configuration in online graduate course discussions . Doctoral Dissertation. University of Toronto. Proquest. DAI-A 72/07, Jan 2012.
  • Reonieri, D.C. (2006). Optimizing the number of students for an effective online discussion board learning experience. An unpublished masters thesis Thomas Edison State College. Trenton, NJ.
  • Rovai, A. (2002). Building sense of community at a distance. International Review of research in Open and Distances Learning 3 (1), 1-16.
  • Sawchuk, S. (2012). Class size funding in crosshairs in republican ESEA bill. Education Week. Retrieved from http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/teacherbeat/2012/01/class_size_funding_in_crosshai.html
  • Sener, J. (2010). Why online education will attain full scale. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 14 (4), 3-16. Retrieved from (External Link) default/files/1_jalnv14-4_sener_0.pdf
  • Shelton , K.,&Saltzman, G. (2005). An administrator’s guide to online education. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.
  • Slavin, R.E. (1986). Best-evidence synthesis: An alternative to meta-analytic and traditional reviews. Educational Researcher, 15 (9), 5-11.
  • Sparks, S. (2010). Class sizes show signs of growing. Education Week. Retrieved from http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2010/11/24/13size_ep.h30.html
  • Stripling, J. (2009). So many student, so little time. Inside Education . Retrieved from http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2009/03/24/heh
  • Taft, S. H., Perkowski, T.,&Martin, L. S. (2011). A framework for evaluating class size in online education. The Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 12 (3), 181-197.
  • Tomei, L. (2006). The impact of online teaching on faculty load:Computing the ideal class size for online courses. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education,14 (3), 531-541.
  • “Top 25 Online Colleges of 2011.” (2011). TheBestCollege.org. Retrieved from http://www.thebestcolleges.org/top-online-schools/
  • U.S. News&World Report. (2012). Honor roll: Top online graduate education programs. Retrieved from http://www.usnews.com/education/online-education/education/honor-roll-rankings
  • Wallace, R. M. (2003). Online learning in higher education: A review of research on interactions among teachers and students. Education, Communication&Information, 3 (2), 241-280.
  • Walsh, T. (2011). Unlocking the gates: How and why leading universities are opening up access to their courses. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Mueller Reply
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
QuizOver.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Ncpea handbook of online instruction and programs in education leadership. OpenStax CNX. Mar 06, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11375/1.24
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Ncpea handbook of online instruction and programs in education leadership' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask