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General background information

In this module, I will help you learn about:

  • Structured programming.
  • The sequence structure.
  • The selection structure.
  • The loop structure.

In introductory programming courses, you will often hear a lot about something called structured programming. In comparison with more modern and complex programming concepts such as runtime polymorphism, structured programming is fairly mundane. However, that's not to say that structured programming isn'timportant. It is very important. But it is just a small bump in theroad of learning that leads to a more complete understanding of computer programming, especially object-oriented programming.

What is structured programming ?

Basically, the concept of structured programming says that any programming logic problem can be solved using an appropriate combination of only threeprogramming structures, none of which are complicated. The three structures are known generally as:

  • The sequence structure.
  • The selection or decision structure .
  • The loop, repetition, or iteration structure.

One door in and one door out

To understand structured programming, you need to think in terms of a section of program code that has only one entry point and one exit point. It isvery important that there cannot be multiple entry points or multiple exit points.

There must be only one way into the section of code and one way out of the section of code.

Nesting of structures is allowed

Another important part of the concept is that structures may be nested inside of other structures provided that every structure meets the basic rules for astructure.

Thus, by nesting simple structures inside of simple structures, large and complex overall structures can be constructed.

Pseudocode

Computer programming source code consists generally (but not in Scratch) of programming instructions written in text form with a very specific format or syntax that is designed to be understood by a computerprogram. Humans who are not computer programmers might not be expected to understand much of what they see in computer programming source code.

According to Wikipedia ,

"The prefix pseudo - (from Greek... "lying, false") is used to mark something as false, fraudulent, or pretending to be something it is not."

According to Wikipedia ,

"Pseudocode is an informal high-level description of the operating principle of a computer program or other algorithm. It uses the structural conventions of a programming language, but is intended for human reading rather than machine reading. Pseudocode typically omits details that are not essential for human understanding of the algorithm...
The purpose of using pseudocode is that it is easier for people to understand than conventional programming language code, and that it is anefficient and environment-independent description of the key principles of an algorithm."

The sequence structure

We can describe the sequence structure using the pseudocode shown in Image 1 .

Image 1. the sequence structure in pseudocode.

Enter Perform one or more actions in sequenceExit
Image 1. The sequence structure in pseudocode.

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Teaching beginners to code. OpenStax CNX. May 27, 2013 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11498/1.20
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