<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Muscles

Definition:
= Muscle is a contractile tissue type of animals

Khan video: Anatomy of a muscle cell

(External Link)

Khan video: Myosin and actin

(External Link)

Khan video: Role of sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscle cell

(External Link)

Three types of muscle

Smooth/ involuntary

  • not by will- spontaneous
  • unconscious routine tasks of the body:
    • Food moving down the digestive system
    • keeping the eyes in focus
    • adjusting the diameter of blood vessels

Structure:

  • spindle shaped cells with nucleus
Illustrates the structure of a smooth muscle

Functions:

Found in the walls of:

  • blood vessels
  • Uterus
  • bladder
  • Intestines

Cardiac muscle

  • Responsible for your heart beat (muscle only found in the heart)
  • Only found in the walls of the heart

Structure

  • branched and contains intercalated disks
  • Carry message in each cell for heart contraction
Illustrates the structure of the cardiac muscle

Voluntary/skeletal

controlled by will

  • Running
  • Walking
  • Skipping

Structure:

  • The basic units of a muscle are called myofibrils .
  • These myofibrils make up the muscle fibre (large muscle cells).
  • Numerous muscle fibres (cells) are found in bundles .
  • These bundles are surrounded by perimisium
    • This is called fasciculus
  • Numerous fasciculi are surrounded by epimysium
  • This forms a muscle
Indicates the differing structural components of the voluntary muscle.

Muscle contraction

  • Myofibrils are responsible for the muscle contraction.
  • Each myofibril consists of units called sarcomeres (there are many sarcomeres ineach myofibril )
  • Sarcomeres consist of thin actin filaments and thick myosin filaments.
  • When muscle fibres contract these filaments slide across each other.
  • The actin filaments shorten, but the length of the myosin filaments do not change.
  • This causes the sarcomeres shorten,
    • leading to the whole muscle to shorten
  • ATP (energy) is a substance in the muscle fibre that provides energy for the contracting actin filament.

IMAGE!!!Details on wish list

Video: Summary of the workings of the muscle

(External Link)

Muscle Exercise:

Column A

Column B

A) Attached to skeleton by tendons 1) Cardiac muscle
B) Seen in bundles 2) Blood vesels
C) They make up muscle fibers 3) Muscles
D) Spindle shaped structure 4) movement
E) Causes the pumping action of the heart. 5) muscle fibres
F) smooth muscles are found here 6) Fasciculus
G) specialized tissue 7) myofibrils
H) contraction and relaxation 8) voluntary muscles
I) bundles surrounded by perimysium 9) epimysium
J) Numerous fasciculi are surrounded by 10) Involuntary muscle

Choose the correct answer for column A from column B (only one correct answer per question)

Activity: classifying muscle types

  • Use the following story to classify the different muscle types. Use a coloured pen or highlighter to underline or highlight the actions in the story whichrequire the different types of muscles
  • Suggested colours to use: Pink = Cardiac Muslces; Blue =Voluntary ; Yellow = Involuntary
  • Then draw each structure in the space provided

Story:

BEEP BEEP BEEP!!!

6 a.m on a Monday morning Tsholo’s alarm goes off.

She jumps out of bed and walks to the toilet to relieve her bladder. Tsholo is very excited for the day and skips back to her room to get dressed and pack herschool bag for the new week. In the kitchen mom has prepared Tsholo’s favourite porridge –Mielie Meal *. Tsholo eats het porridge with greatpleasure. After breakfast, she brushes het teeth and skips to the car where she waits for mom to unlock the doors.

At school Tsholo runs to her friends in total excitement to tell them about her visit to her grandmother. While chatting she sees Tom - the boy she likes alot! He looks her way and Tsholo’s starts blushing. Her heart rate increases and her palms become sweaty.

The bell rings.

Tsholo and her friends walk to class, giggling and talking. Her heart rate slowly returns back to normal . The week has begun…

Draw and label the three different muscle types

Cardiac:

Voluntary:

Involuntary:

Interesting facts – skeleton

  • A baby is born with more bones (360 bones) than an adult (average 206 bones). Bones making up the skull and the spine fuse together as the body grows makingit less.
  • The femur/thigh bone is the largest in your body. The femur is approximately one quarter of a person’s overall height.
  • Strengthen your skeleton by drinking milk and eating leafy greens (such as brussels sprouts and kale). They contain calcium which keeps bones healthy andstrong.
  • A broken bone produces many new cells to rebuild the bone. These cells cover both ends of the broken part of the bone and close up the break.
  • Your bones are alive! In your body bones have their own nerves and blood vessels.
  • Your bone is 50% water and 50% solid material
  • You have 14 bones are in your face.
  • There are 8 bones in each of your wrists
  • You have 23 bones in each foot ( this includes the ankle)
  • Your skull is made up of fused bones which acts like a hard protective helmet for your brain.

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
yes
Asali
I'm not good at math so would you help me
Samantha
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
Asali
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Comment on the ozone depletion over the period of 1982 to 1996
Mpho Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Siyavula: life sciences grade 10. OpenStax CNX. Apr 11, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11410/1.3
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Siyavula: life sciences grade 10' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask