<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
An introduction to flowcharting including the demonstration of functions and various control structures.

Flowcharting symbols

Terminal

The rounded rectangles, or terminal points, indicate the flowchart's starting and ending points.

Process

The rectangle depicts a process such as a mathematical computation, or a variable assignment.

Note: the C++ language equivalent is the statement.

Input/output

The parallelograms designate input or output operations.

Note: the C++ language equivalent is cin or cout.

Connectors

Sometimes a flowchart is broken into two or more smaller flowcharts. This is usually done when a flowchart does not fit on a single page, or must be divided into sections. A connector symbol, which is a small circle with a letter or number inside it, allows you to connect two flowcharts on the same page. A connector symbol that looks like a pocket on a shirt, allows you to connect to a flowchart on a different page.

On-Page Connector

Off-Page Connector

Decision

The diamond is used to represent the true/false statement being tested in a decision symbol.

Module call

A program module is represented in a flowchart by rectangle with some lines to distinguish it from process symbol. Often programmers will make a distinction between program control and specific task modules as shown below.

Note: C++ equivalent is the function.

Local module: usually a program control function.

Library module: usually a specific task function.

Flow lines

Note: The default flow is left to right and top to bottom (the same way you read English). To save time arrowheads are often only drawn when the flow lines go contrary the normal.

Examples

We will demonstrate various flowcharting items by showing the flowchart for some pseudocode.

Functions

Pseudocode: function with no parameter passing

Function clear monitor Pass In: nothing Direct the operating system to clear the monitorPass Out: nothing Endfunction

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Function clear monitor

Pseudocode: function main calling the clear monitor function

Function main Pass In: nothingDoing some lines of code Call: clear monitorDoing some lines of code Pass Out: value zero to the operating systemEndfunction

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Function main

Sequence control structures

The next item is pseudocode for a simple temperature conversion program. This demonstrates the use of both the on-page and off-page connectors. It also illustrates the sequence control structure where nothing unusually happens. Just do one instruction after another in the sequence listed.

Pseudocode: sequence control structure

Filename: Solution_Lab_04_Pseudocode.txt Purpose: Convert Temperature from Fahrenheit to CelsiusAuthor: Ken Busbee; © 2008 Kenneth Leroy Busbee Date: Dec 24, 2008Pseudocode = IPO Outline inputdisplay a message asking user for the temperature in Fahrenheit get the temperature from the keyboardprocessing calculate the Celsius by subtracting 32 from the Fahrenheittemperature then multiply the result by 5 then divide the result by 9. Round up or down to the whole number.HINT: Use 32.0 when subtracting to ensure floating-point accuracy. outputdisplay the celsius with an appropriate message pause so the user can see the answer

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Sequence control structure

Sequence control structured continued

Selection control structures

Pseudocode: if then else

If age>17 Display a message indicating you can vote.Else Display a message indicating you can't vote.Endif

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

If then Else control structure

Pseudocode: case

Case of age 0 to 17 Display "You can't vote."18 to 64 Display "Your in your working years." 65 + Display "You should be retired."Endcase

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Case control structure

Iteration (repetition) control structures

Pseudocode: while

count assigned zero While count<5 Display "I love computers!"Increment count Endwhile

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

While control structure

Pseudocode: for

For x starts at 0, x<5, increment x Display "Are we having fun?"Endfor

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

The for loop does not have a standard flowcharting method and you will find it done in different ways. The for loop as a counting loop can be flowcharted similar to the while loop as a counting loop.

For control structure

Pseudocode: do while

count assigned five DoDisplay "Blast off is soon!" Decrement countWhile count>zero

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Do While control structure

Pseudocode: repeat until

count assigned five RepeatDisplay "Blast off is soon!" Decrement countUntil count<one

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Repeat Until control structure

Definitions

flowcharting
A programming design tool that uses graphical elements to visually depict the flow of logic within a function.
process symbol
A rectangle used in flowcharting for normal processes such as assignment.
input/output symbol
A parallelogram used in flowcharting for input/output interactions.
decision symbol
A diamond used in flowcharting for asking a question and making a decision.
flow lines
Lines (sometimes with arrows) that connect the various flowcharting symbols.

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
Abhi
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
hmm
Abhi
is it a question of log
Abhi
🤔.
Abhi
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
hii
Uday
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
QuizOver.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Programming fundamentals - a modular structured approach using c++. OpenStax CNX. Jan 10, 2013 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10621/1.22
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Programming fundamentals - a modular structured approach using c++' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask