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Social sciences: history

Grade 6

The road to democracy in sa

Module 7

State of emergency in the 1980’s

A new constitution under leadership of State President P.W. Botha, which included Whites, Coloureds and Indians only, came into effect in 1983. Black people had to be accommodated in the homelands.

On 20 August 1983 a gathering of approximately 15 000 people from 575 organisations that included workers, the youth and churches, formed the UDF (United Democratic Front) in Cape Town. They organised boycotts, protests and strikes against the government in support of the ANC.

Schools, consumer and rent boycotts were common. In many of the black townships the police were kept out of what was known as "liberated zones." Bundu courts and necklacings were instituted.

Cosatu (Congress of South African Trade Unions), the biggest trade union in SA, was also formed during this time.

When an ANC car bomb (60kg) exploded in May 1983 in Church Street, Pretoria, 19 people were killed and 216 injured. The target was the offices of the SAA.

Bomb explosion at the Nedbank building in Pretoria, 1983

Find your own sources about this.

Activity 1:

To reconstruct the past

[lo 3.1]

(a) Interpret (understand) the previous source and try to determine the truth where different points of view exist about the past.

1.1 Who planted the bomb?

1.2 Supply facts and opinions about the events?

1.3 During which circumstances in the history of our country did the event take


1.4 How important is the source?

1.5 How do you think, the people in the picture felt?

1.6 Write your own caption.

1.7 What did you learn from this?

Chief Buthelezi, born 1928. He is a prince of the royal house.


Inkatha Yenkululeku Yesizwe was formed as a national and cultural freedom movement among Zulus in 1975. Initially relations between the ANC and Inkatha were friendly. In 1979, however, during consultations in London, delegates of the two movements could not reach agreement on who should lead the struggle for freedom. In July 1990 Inkatha became a political party - the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP).

The president of the IFP, Dr Mangosuthu Buthelezi, rejected the UDF as a "power of dissent" because he suggested that Zulus were not welcomed to the organisation. Most of the Zulus joined the IFP. Then Buthelezi formed UWUSA (United Workers' Union of SA) as opposition to COSATU. A bloody war, that claimed thousands of lives, erupted between supporters of the ANC and IFP.

During 1986 the pass laws and laws against mixed marriages were repealed.(Between 1916 and 1985 approximately 17 million people were arrested as a result of the pass laws.) The state of emergency remained until 1980. By June 1985, a state of emergency was again declared because unrest had spread right across SA. Greater power was granted to the military forces and to the police. Campaigns were launched by black people to make black townships ungovernable.

(b) Briefly state the contribution of the leaders of the black liberation movement to human rights – you will find it somewhere in the module. (Their initial will help).

1 (A)
2 (S)
3 (N)
4 (O)
5 (W)
6 (M)


LO 3
HISTORICAL INTERPRETATION The learner will be able to interpret aspects of history.
We know this when the learner:
3.1 interprets sources:
  • compares two versions of an historical event using visual or written sources;
3.2 reconstructs the past:
  • distinguishes opinions from facts and information;
3.3 representation of the past:
  • identifies and selects items which represent an aspect being studied, to contribute to a class display, school museum or community archive.

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
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what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
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Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
I'm not good at math so would you help me
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
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what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, History grade 6. OpenStax CNX. Sep 08, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11011/1.1
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