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Social sciences: history

Grade 6

The road to democracy in sa

Module 7

State of emergency in the 1980’s

A new constitution under leadership of State President P.W. Botha, which included Whites, Coloureds and Indians only, came into effect in 1983. Black people had to be accommodated in the homelands.

On 20 August 1983 a gathering of approximately 15 000 people from 575 organisations that included workers, the youth and churches, formed the UDF (United Democratic Front) in Cape Town. They organised boycotts, protests and strikes against the government in support of the ANC.

Schools, consumer and rent boycotts were common. In many of the black townships the police were kept out of what was known as "liberated zones." Bundu courts and necklacings were instituted.

Cosatu (Congress of South African Trade Unions), the biggest trade union in SA, was also formed during this time.

When an ANC car bomb (60kg) exploded in May 1983 in Church Street, Pretoria, 19 people were killed and 216 injured. The target was the offices of the SAA.

Bomb explosion at the Nedbank building in Pretoria, 1983

Find your own sources about this.

Activity 1:

To reconstruct the past

[lo 3.1]

(a) Interpret (understand) the previous source and try to determine the truth where different points of view exist about the past.

1.1 Who planted the bomb?

1.2 Supply facts and opinions about the events?

1.3 During which circumstances in the history of our country did the event take


1.4 How important is the source?

1.5 How do you think, the people in the picture felt?

1.6 Write your own caption.

1.7 What did you learn from this?

Chief Buthelezi, born 1928. He is a prince of the royal house.


Inkatha Yenkululeku Yesizwe was formed as a national and cultural freedom movement among Zulus in 1975. Initially relations between the ANC and Inkatha were friendly. In 1979, however, during consultations in London, delegates of the two movements could not reach agreement on who should lead the struggle for freedom. In July 1990 Inkatha became a political party - the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP).

The president of the IFP, Dr Mangosuthu Buthelezi, rejected the UDF as a "power of dissent" because he suggested that Zulus were not welcomed to the organisation. Most of the Zulus joined the IFP. Then Buthelezi formed UWUSA (United Workers' Union of SA) as opposition to COSATU. A bloody war, that claimed thousands of lives, erupted between supporters of the ANC and IFP.

During 1986 the pass laws and laws against mixed marriages were repealed.(Between 1916 and 1985 approximately 17 million people were arrested as a result of the pass laws.) The state of emergency remained until 1980. By June 1985, a state of emergency was again declared because unrest had spread right across SA. Greater power was granted to the military forces and to the police. Campaigns were launched by black people to make black townships ungovernable.

(b) Briefly state the contribution of the leaders of the black liberation movement to human rights – you will find it somewhere in the module. (Their initial will help).

1 (A)
2 (S)
3 (N)
4 (O)
5 (W)
6 (M)


LO 3
HISTORICAL INTERPRETATION The learner will be able to interpret aspects of history.
We know this when the learner:
3.1 interprets sources:
  • compares two versions of an historical event using visual or written sources;
3.2 reconstructs the past:
  • distinguishes opinions from facts and information;
3.3 representation of the past:
  • identifies and selects items which represent an aspect being studied, to contribute to a class display, school museum or community archive.

Questions & Answers

Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, History grade 6. OpenStax CNX. Sep 08, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11011/1.1
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