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Natural sciences

Grade 8


Module 22

Life on earth

All plants and animals are divided into groups according to their characteristics. Can you remember what we call the process by which this division is performed?


  • Test your memory:
  • Animals are divided into TWO main groups according to the presence or absence of a
  • Animals that do not have an internal skeleton are known as
  • Animals with an internal skeleton are known as
  • Vertebrates are divided into

Activity: to classify information

  • Cut out the pictures on this page and paste them on another sheet of paper under the propriate heading (Fish, Amphians, Reptiles, Birds, Mammals ). List three external features of each group. (Remember that features may not be visible in the pictures.)

Fish eagle Haliaeetus vocifer

Rhinoceros Diceros bicornis

Leguan Varanus niloticus

Common frog Rana temporia

Common carp Cyprinus carpio

Assessment of classification:

Could you apply the sketches correctly and list the correct features?

[ LO 2.2]

The classification of living organisms is performed according to an international system designed by scientists. This makes it possible for people from all language groups and from all over the world to know precisely which organism is meant when information is offered or received.

Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778), a Swedish doctor, botanist and zoologist, has had the most important influence on our present classification system.

  • Names given to organisms are mainly of Latin origin (so it is “Greek” to most of us).
  • Each organism bears a "NAME" and a "SURNAME".
  • The name represents the species – it refers to similarities in structure, function and reproduction potential (the chromosome number is the same).
  • The surname represents the Genus – it indicates a group of related species.
  • The rule for writing this has INTERNATIONAL validity.
  • The Genus name is written first and with an initial capital letter followed by lower case letters.
  • This is followed by a space and the species name, using lower case letters throughout.
  • If the name is printed, italic script is used. In hand-written format, the two words are underlined separately.
  • The scientific name of the earthworm, for instance, is Lumbricus terrestris.
  • This system is referred to as a BINOMINAL system (two names).

Activity: to apply a simple classification system

1. What is a biologist?

2. What is a botanist?

3. Write the scientific name of the earthworm according to the international rule:

4. Why is classification important?

5. What is the meaning of terre in the scientific name of the earthworm?.

6. Use of the information provided on the page of sketches and write the scientific name in one column and the common name in another column.

7. Examine the names of the different robins (birds)

  • Chorister robin: Cossypha dichroa
  • Heuglin’s robin: Cossypha heuglini
  • Natal robin: Cossypha natalensis
  • Cape robin Cossypha caffra
  • Explain the meaning of the Genus and the species names as in the binominal classification system with reference to these names.

Assessment of APPLICATION:

Could you answer the questions?

[LO 2.4]


  • Do research on Carl Linnaeus as a scientist. Write a report of approximately 100 words.


Learning outcomes 1: Scientific investigations

The learner will be able to act confidently on curiosity about natural phenomena, and to investigate relationships and solve problems in scientific, technological and environmental contexts.

This is evident when the learner

1.2 is able to conduct an investigation and collect data.

Learning outcomes 2: Constructing Science Knowledge

The learner will know and be able to interpret and apply scientific, technological and environmental knowledge.

This is evident when the learner

  • able to categorise information;

2.4 is able to apply knowledge.



  • Explain classification and the binominal system.
  • Sources dealing with Carolus Linnaeus.

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
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s. Reply
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Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
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so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
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what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
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Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Natural sciences grade 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 12, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11050/1.1
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