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Geography

Grade 4

Food production in south africa

Module 21

Commercial and subsistence farming

Commercial and subsistence farming

A

B

Activity 1

To compare sketches illustrating two farms with regard to given criteria [lo 1.6]

Sketch A Sketch B
Buildings
Implements
Farming methods
Cultivated products

In sketch A the people living on the land farm to meet their own needs only. They usually do not need a large piece of land. They only produce enough food for their own use. They sometimes have food left to exchange or sell to supply in the need of other people. A variety of crops is planted, and they also provide their own meat, eggs and milk. The farmer and his family do all the work themselves as they do not make a profit from farming and can therefore not pay wages. This kind of farmer is known as a subsistence farmer .

The farmer in sketch B farms with one main crop, namely maize. He produces large quantities that he sells at a profit. He is able to live on the money for a long time and can also buy seed for the next harvest. He does not produce his crop for his own use and therefore buys the food he wants to eat. These farmers are known as commercial farmers and their motive for farming is the profit they can make.

Activity 2

To plan your own subsistence farming [lo 1.7]

Make a list of the basic foods that you need for survival.

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You are now a subsistence farmer. Suppose that you have been given a piece of land of approximately 5 000 square metres (70 x 70 metres or half a hectare) in the southern Cape where the soil is very fertile. There is a farmhouse with all necessary services, a dam, a permanent river and fencing on the land. Remember what the basic foodstuffs that you need for survival are and start planning your farming activities. Draw a plan (map) with a key to show what your farm will look like from the air.

Assessment

Learning outcome 1: geographical enquiry

The learner will be able to use enquiry skills to investigate geographical and

environmental concepts and processes.

Assessment standard

We know this when the learner:

1.6 uses information from sources (including own observations) to answer questions about people and places (e.g. “Why is it like that?”) [answers the question];

1.7 uses geographical and environmental concepts and terms to report on enquiries in different ways (e.g. writing a paragraph, using a poster, artwork).

Memorandum

Sketch A Sketch B
Buildings Small house Farm homestead and garageBarnSilos
Implements Hand ploughHorsePounding block TractorsPlough-shares
Farming methods With manual labourFew labourersSmall scaleSupplies in own needs MechanicalMany labourersLarge scale
Cultivated products Something of everything according to own needs Focussed on selected crops

Milk

Bread

Butter

Vegetables

Meat

Eggs

Make provision for:

Cattle

Sheep

Chickens

Wheat

Maize

Vegetables

Questions & Answers

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Source:  OpenStax, Geography grade 4. OpenStax CNX. Sep 17, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11084/1.1
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