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Sosiale wetenskappe

Aardrykskunde

Graad 8

Kaartwerk

Module 14

Skaal en afstandsberekening

Skaal en afstandsberekening

1.1 Skaal

Skaal is die mate waarin ’n kaart kleiner is as die werklike aardoppervlakte. Julle het al vroeër geleer dat daar verskillende soorte skale is:

a) Die woordskaal druk die skaal in woorde uit, byvoorbeeld “Een sentimeter op die kaart verteenwoordig ’n halwe kilometer”.

b) Die breukskaal word as ’n verhouding of ’n breuk geskryf, byvoorbeeld 1:50 000 of 1 50 000 size 12{ { { size 8{1} } over { size 8{"50"`"000"} } } } {} .Dit beteken een eenheid (bv. cm) op die kaart verteenwoordig 50 000 van dieselfde eenhede (cm) op die aardoppervlakte.

c) Die lynskaal is ’n lyn wat in sentimeter afgemerk is, wat die ooreenkomstige afstand op die grond in kilometer aandui.

Afstandaangedui as 3,5 km

1.2 Die meet van afstand op ’n kaart

Daar gaan deurgaans van die topografiese kaartreeks gebruik gemaak word waar die skaal 1:50 000 is.

Gaan soos volg te werk om werklike afstand te bepaal:

  • Meet die afstand op die kaart akkuraat met ’n liniaal in sentimeter.
  • Herlei die afstand na km of m afhangend van wat gevra word.

Voorbeeld:

  • Die kaartafstand tussen A en B is 10 cm.
  • Wat is die werklike afstand in km?
  • Wat is die werklike afstand in m?
10 cm × 50 000500 000 cm ÷ 100 000= 5 km 10 cm × 50 000500 000 cm ÷ 100= 5 000 m

Hoekom word daar met 100 000 en 100 gedeel?

  • Die metrieke eenheidsmate is soos volg:
  • Daar is dus 100 000 cm in ’n km 100 cm in ’n meter

Jy kan dus ’n korter metode gebruik as jy onthou dat jou skaal van 1:50 000 dieselfde is as:

1 cm = 50 000 cm1 cm = 500 m (÷ 100)1 cm = 0,5 km (÷ 100 000)

Bereken dan die afstand soos volg:

10 cm × 0,5 10 cm × 500= 5 km = 500 m

  • As ’n kronkelende pad byvoorbeeld gemeet moet word, moet die roete eers met ’n stukkie tou gemeet word. Meet die tou se lengte op die liniaal af en volg dan dieselfde metode as hierbo of meet dit af op die lynskaal.

AKTIWITEIT 1

[LU 1.3]

1. Bereken die werklike afstand in meter as die afstand op ’n 1:50 000 topografiese kaart die volgende is:

a) 2,3 cm

b) 6,8 cm

c) 5,5 cm

2. Bereken die werklike afstand in kilometer as die afstand op ’n 1:50 000 topografiese kaart die volgende is:

a) 90,4 cm

b) 56,3 cm

c) 103,6 cm

Assessering

AssesseringLeeruitkomstes(LUs)
LU 1
Aardrykskundige OndersoekDie leerder is in staat om ondersoekvaardighede te gebruik om aardrykskundige en omgewingsbegrippe en -prosesse te ondersoek.
Assesseringstandaarde(ASe)
Dit is duidelik wanneer die leerder:
1.1 ‘n verskeidenheid geografiese en omgewingsbronne identifiseer en selekteer wat relevant tot die navorsing is;1.2 inligting vanaf kaarte en atlasse, asook grafiese en statistiese bronne, interpreteer;1.3 afstandberekening doen op kaarte en dit vergelyk met werklike afstand;1.4 fisiese en mensgemaakte eienskappe op lugfoto’s en kaarte identifiseer.

Memorandum

AKTIWITEIT 1:

1(a) 1150 m

1( b) 3400 m

1(c) 2750 m

2(a) 45,2 km

2(b) 28,25 km

2(c) 51,8 km

Questions & Answers

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SUYASH
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s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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Cied
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I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
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AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
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Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
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good afternoon madam
AMJAD
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AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
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name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
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Prasenjit Reply
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how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, Aardrykskunde graad 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 11, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11035/1.1
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