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Sosiale wetenskappe: aardrykskunde

Graad 8

Natuurlike hulpbronne

Module 10

Handel en nywerheid, mynbou

Handel en Nywerheid

  • Die ekonomie en die omgewing is onlosmaaklik verweef. ‘n Gesonde omgewing is nie net van ekologiese belang nie, maar ook onontbeerlik vir die ekonomiese welsyn van die land. ‘n Gesonde ekonomie kan nie op ‘n geskende omgewing en afgetakelde natuurbronne gebou word nie.
  • Ekonomiese ontwikkeling wat nie die omgewing in ag neem nie, is nog aanvaarbaar, nog prakties. Dit is nie toevallig dat leidende maatskappye besef dat omgewingskwessies onlosmaaklik gekoppel is aan politieke, ekonomiese en maatskaplike kwessies nie. Hulle aanvaar dat die versorging van die omgewing ‘n maatskaplike verantwoordelikheid is, en het ook reeds besef dat bewaring voordelig vir sake kan wees en dat vandag se eko-verantwoordelikheid môre se wins is. Dit behels veel meer as die blote verbetering van openbare betrekkinge: hulpbron-doeltreffende tegnologie, beter energiebenutting, die vermindering van afval en die voorkoming van besoedeling, kan winste aansienlik opstoot.
  • Dit is algemeen bekend dat ‘n groeiende ekonomie die welvaart moet skep om alle Suid-Afrikaners se lewenspeil te verhoog en uiters noodsaaklike maatskaplike opheffingsprogramme te finansier. Hierdie ekonomiese ontwikkeling moet egter verskil van die patroon wat voorheen in Suid-Afrika en ander geïndustrialiseerde Westerse lande gevolg is en die omgewing geskend en ‘n geweldige maatskaplike tol geëis het. Dié proses moet volhoubaar wees en binne die drakrag van die natuurlike omgewing geskied – nie daarbuite nie. Die klem moenie net val op die aantal goedere en dienste wat gelewer word nie, maar ook op die groei van persoonlike en menslike hulpbronne.

Handel en nywerhede in Suid-Afrika

Aktiwiteit 1:

Om die belangrikste nywerhede in die rsa by elke dorp of stad te identifiseer en neer te skryf

[lu 1.2]

Raadpleeg die sleutel en skryf die verskillende nywerhede wat in elke stad of dorp aangetref word, neer.

  • Kaapstad:
  • Saldanha:
  • Mosselbaai:
  • Port Elizabeth:
  • Oos Londen:
  • Durban:
  • Richardsbaai:
  • Kimberley:
  • Bloemfontein:
  • Sasolburg:
  • Vereeniging:
  • Witbank:
  • Johannesburg:
  • Pretoria:

Mynbou

  • Suid-Afrika is buitengewoon mineraalryk. Die land beskik oor die grootste bekende neerslae goud, chroom, mangaan, vanadium, andalusiet en die platinum-groep metale, asook reuse-reserwes ander waardevolle metale en minerale soos steenkool, nikkel, silwer, lood, fosfaat, uraan, titaan en sirkoon.
  • Die land kon sy vroeëre ekonomiese groei grootliks gehandhaaf deur die ontginning van hierdie nie-hernubare bronne. Mynbou het in 1961 sowat 29 persent van die Bruto Binnelandse produksie gelewer.
  • Mynbou is egter in wese ‘n nie-hernubare bedryf en kan nie ontwikkeling onbepaald na ‘n meer volhoubare ekonomie wat gegrond is op hernubare hulpbronne.
  • Mynboubedrywighede, wat oor sowat 1 persent van Suid-Afrika se oppervlakte voorkom, het massiewe omgewingskade aangerig en besoedeling in baie dele van die land veroorsaak.
  • Skade is byvoorbeeld aangerig deur die vrystelling van besoedelde water, lugbesoedeling (van brandende steenkoollae), afvalprodukte, osoonvernietigende CFK’s uit verkoelingsaanlegte en ruimteverkwistende mynhope en omgewingskending deur ongerehabiliteerde oopgroefmyne.
  • Daarbenewens is skaars hulpbronne, veral water en grond, in die verlede deur mynboubedrywighede verkwis en was mynbou ook die oorsaak van die ernstige omgewingsverwante gesondheidsprobleme onder sy werkers. Minerale ertsverryking het ook aansienlike omgewingskade aangerig.

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Aardrykskunde graad 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 11, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11035/1.1
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