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LPI results are distributed among six categories. Kouzes and Posner identified Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership® (Model the Way, Inspire a Shared Vision, Challenge the Process, Enable Others to Act, and Encourage the Heart) that contributed to each resident’s summative scores.
Paired samples t tests were conducted to evaluate the impact of the instructional leadership program on students’ scores on each of the LPI’s Five Practices. The results are:
There was a statistically significant increase in LPI scores under the Model the Way Practice from the pretest ( M = 47.20, SD = 6.16) to the posttest ( M = 50.65, SD = 6.13), t (23) = 3.29, p =.003 (two-tailed). The mean difference in LPI scores was 3.44 with a 95% confidence interval ranging from 1.28 to 5.60. The value of Cohen’s d statistic is .79.
There was a statistically significant increase in LPI scores under the Inspire a Shared Vision Practice from the pretest ( M = 42.17, SD = 9.03) to the posttest ( M = 47.83, SD = 6.46), t (23) = 3.14, p =.005 (two-tailed). The mean increase in LPI scores was 5.65 with a 95% confidence interval ranging from 1.93 to 9.37. The value of Cohen’s d statistic is .88.
There was a statistically significant increase in LPI scores under the Challenge the Process Practice from the pretest ( M = 43.17, SD = 8.96) to the posttest ( M = 47.35, SD = 7.94), t (23) = 2.55, p =.018 (two-tailed). The mean increase in LPI scores was 4.17 with a 95% confidence interval ranging from .78 to 7.56. The value of Cohen’s d statistic is .66.
There was a statistically significant increase in LPI scores under the Enable Others to Act Practice from the pretest ( M = 49.22, SD = 5.23.03) to the posttest ( M = 51.74.83, SD = .56), t (23) = 2.26, p =.033 (two-tailed). The mean increase in LPI scores was 2.52 with a 95% confidence interval ranging from .21 to 4.83. The value of Cohen’s d statistic is .68.
There was a statistically significant increase in LPI scores under the Encourage the Heart Practice from the pretest ( M = 46.39, SD = 7.32) to the posttest ( M = 49.87, SD = 6.82), t (23) = 2.49, p =.021 (two-tailed). The mean increase in LPI scores was 3.48 with a 95% confidence interval ranging from .58 to 6.37. The value of Cohen’s d statistic is .67.
There was a statistically significant increase in LPI scores in the summative LPI score from the pretest ( M = 45.63, SD = 6.71) to the posttest ( M = 49.49, SD = 6.06), t (22) = 2.95, p =.007 (two-tailed). The mean increase in LPI scores was 3.85 with a 95% confidence interval ranging from 1.15 to 6.56. The value of Cohen’s d statistic is .81.
Mentors completed an evaluation of the redesigned program near the end of the semester. The mean scores of their survey responses are included in Table 1.
Statement | Mean Score |
1. My orientation session to the program was helpful. I left the meeting at USA with a reasonably clear idea of my responsibility as a mentor. | 3.87 |
2. Program requirements (knowledge and ability statements) were clear. | 3.98 |
3. I met with my resident often enough to evaluate his/her performance while he/she was assigned to my school. | 3.92 |
4. I was satisfied with the frequency of visits to my school by the USA program supervisor. | 3.90 |
5. The Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI) seems to be a helpful formative assessment of Residency performance. | 3.72 |
6. My assessment of the residency? | 3.89 |
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