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Genetic and biological mechanisms have also been proposed, and the balance of research evidence suggests that sexual orientation has an underlying biological component. For instance, over the past 25 years, research has demonstrated gene-level contributions to sexual orientation (Bailey&Pillard, 1991; Hamer, Hu, Magnuson, Hu,&Pattatucci, 1993; Rodriguez-Larralde&Paradisi, 2009), with some researchers estimating that genes account for at least half of the variability seen in human sexual orientation (Pillard&Bailey, 1998). Other studies report differences in brain structure and function between heterosexuals and homosexuals (Allen&Gorski, 1992; Byne et al., 2001; Hu et al., 2008; LeVay, 1991; Ponseti et al., 2006; Rahman&Wilson, 2003a; Swaab&Hofman, 1990), and even differences in basic body structure and function have been observed (Hall&Kimura, 1994; Lippa, 2003; Loehlin&McFadden, 2003; McFadden&Champlin, 2000; McFadden&Pasanen, 1998; Rahman&Wilson, 2003b). In aggregate, the data suggest that to a significant extent, sexual orientations are something with which we are born.

Misunderstandings about sexual orientation

Regardless of how sexual orientation is determined, research has made clear that sexual orientation is not a choice, but rather it is a relatively stable characteristic of a person that cannot be changed. Claims of successful gay conversion therapy have received wide criticism from the research community due to significant concerns with research design, recruitment of experimental participants, and interpretation of data. As such, there is no credible scientific evidence to suggest that individuals can change their sexual orientation (Jenkins, 2010).

Dr. Robert Spitzer, the author of one of the most widely-cited examples of successful conversion therapy, apologized to both the scientific community and the gay community for his mistakes, and he publically recanted his own paper in a public letter addressed to the editor of Archives of Sexual Behavior in the spring of 2012 (Carey, 2012). In this letter, Spitzer wrote,

I was considering writing something that would acknowledge that I now judge the major critiques of the study as largely correct. . . . I believe I owe the gay community an apology for my study making unproven claims of the efficacy of reparative therapy. I also apologize to any gay person who wasted time or energy undergoing some form of reparative therapy because they believed that I had proven that reparative therapy works with some “highly motivated” individuals. (Becker, 2012, pars. 2, 5)

Citing research that suggests not only that gay conversion therapy is ineffective, but also potentially harmful, legislative efforts to make such therapy illegal have either been enacted (e.g., it is now illegal in California) or are underway across the United States, and many professional organizations have issued statements against this practice (Human Rights Campaign, n.d.)

Gender identity

Many people conflate sexual orientation with gender identity because of stereotypical attitudes that exist about homosexuality. In reality, these are two related, but different, issues. Gender identity refers to one’s sense of being male or female. Generally, our gender identities correspond to our chromosomal and phenotypic sex, but this is not always the case. When individuals do not feel comfortable identifying with the gender associated with their biological sex, then they experience gender dysphoria. Gender dysphoria is a diagnostic category in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) that describes individuals who do not identify as the gender that most people would assume they are. This dysphoria must persist for at least six months and result in significant distress or dysfunction to meet DSM-5 diagnostic criteria. In order for children to be assigned this diagnostic category, they must verbalize their desire to become the other gender.

Questions & Answers

what is the nature and nurture perspective of personality?
Khan Reply
are there significant differences between methamphetamine and it's long term effects on male cognitive behavioral and function versus female?
Shiloh Reply
effects will be the same( male & female)
tell me more
no. it's much worse on females. almost s complete polar switch
please is there any difference between abnormal behaviour and normal behaviour?
Ayodele Reply
yes abnormal behavior is "not normal ", actions in society's eyes. an example of abnormal behavior (I remember from a textbook) ; a man who runs around frantically in a grocery store licking strangers'(women's) shoes because when he was a baby his mom would tickle his feet/give them special attentio
yes there is a difference between abnormal and normal behaviour... This is simply because abnormal behaviour is deviating from the normal behaviour of the society while normal behaviour is obeying the moral standards in the society.
how about disorders? like, always having a tantrums and irrational most of the time?
a behavior becomes pathological when 1. there is a before and after : you can see a real change of behavior/cognition or 2. behavior is pathological when it makes yourself or others suffer
what is difference between disease and disorder
disease demand medicin but disorder demands care plus medicin
I think the concept of normal and abnormal behavior in general is not much of psychological concept but more of sociological concept. A behavior or act in itself is not normal or abnormal. How society perceives that specific behavior, that's what decides what's normal.
For instance, gay marriage is considered normal where homosexuality is legalized. Where it isn't legalized, its abnormal.
So there cannot be an absolute answer for your question
well abnormality is pretty much considered in popular society which is something of a correlation of psycholigical perspective reflected through activity... something abstract... or non trending or precedented. or maybe something disturbing or atypical for people in their respective birth cohorts.
please what are the schools of thought in psychology
if I told a girl that I will marry her how will she takes it when am to rate it in percentages
structuralism,functionalism,gestaltalism etc
what about Diathesis stress model ?
What is the difference between motivation and goal?
vishal Reply
goal is what you want to accomplish. motivation is what drives you to achieve it
motivation is ambitious and a goal is a ambition
But Motivation is just stay there for only short time
goal is our destination and motivation is a vehicle to reach goal
motivation is the One person improved in self development another person advices......... goal is achievement at one of the life.....
motivation is for our personality development thing but goal is our whole personality.
but its should be more remember without motivation no life no goal .
it's like this
if my goal is to get my degree. then me wanting a better job is my motivation. ultimately family
Motivation is the vehicle we use to reach our goal.
Please wat r the schools of psychology
i want the outline of it,its methodology
hi guys can someone help me how can I over or stress ?
Jennifer I need to take my own advice however stress relief is something that is done through catharsis which in my estimation is defined as a physical or mental activity used as therapy... that can include, yoga, meditation, sex, physical activity like a sport or martial art practice or sometimes .
the schools of psych I have no clue about
If you want to be something ,that we can say you have goal.But you will never be that without enough effort,if you getting accurate rewards from your surrounding as accepting you than before when you are trying to be something.that we can say motivation.it may be in the form of acceptance and suport
motiVation is the part of goal . but it has a backbone value for goal .with out motivation wo can not Think about our aim of life, our goals .
how do you get motivation? I'm such a lax person
what is mutation?
Amaya Reply
What is mindfulness
mindfulness means to be aware of the present
meaning that you are totally focussing on the present...and living in the moment
also present variables
hello guys
can someone help with few answers ?
hi what is all about ?
Folet Reply
The theory of evolution and its natural selection is a given trait by respond it is also classical conditioning it is a given trait that makes humans more unique than any other species of animals plants or an the theory o the Big Bang is a spontaneous person and has expanded ev we do not know that m
Ryan Reply
behaviors are most successful in treating what?
Cody Reply
mental health disorders
Please guys am about to begin my project, I'd love suggestions on topics I can possibly take up.
Anigwe Reply
What are your guide lines
Hi could anyone discuss self serving bias?
vishal Reply
what is self serving bias?
if you achieve something you are willing to take credit for that. If you don't achieve,you simply say it is because of external factors
I think simple and best example would be if we score good marks we say "I worked hard".If we don't get good marks we say "teacher didn't teach the lesson well".
is it universally applicable?
kindly explain how
If I'm not wrong, universally applicable means something which applies to everyone in general. So if you mean to ask whether everyone has a self serving bias, then the answer is No. Because self defeating bias, which is exactly opposite of self serving bias also exists.
An individual can have either of these two biases
what does attribution means?
Vamsi Reply
I have the same doubt... As we can search for meaning... But not able to understand the concept
atttibution is a social cognitive function that allows us to give, to attribute, feelings of thoughts to somebody that's not ourself. for example I can say that my friend is feeling sad today for some reasons because I can consider that my friend is different than me. does it help ?
Thank you Perle.Can I get another example?
imagine you are walking in the street and you see someone smiling. you can think "oh this person looks happy"
basically it's the ability to understand that others are not you and they can have their own feelings or thoughts
Thank you so much.
wait wait. my last example is wrong. seeing someone smiling and think they're happy is the theory of mind, not attribution
Is this definition correct "basically it's the ability to understand that others are not you and they can have their own feelings or thoughts."
yup ☺
but social cognitive functions are tricky. theory of mind and attribution are quite close !
Then can you please give me another example.
two examples : someone always talks during a class, while others listen to the professor. the intern attribution that you can think of is : this person doesn't like school
now this time, all students talk during a class. the external attribution that you can think of is : the class is boring
attribution is nothing but just the process by which we human explain our behaviour
like when I get good marks..i will attribute this to my performance and study
Hi Perle could you help me with one question
Is Self serving bias universal in attribution process?
self serving bias is like the tendency to perceive ourselves in very righteous manner
it's more on focussing on the need to maintain high self esteem
the basics are clear I needed to know more on the universal applicability about the SSB (self serving bias)
vishal yup thats a good idea ...
please what arw the two main ways of controlling behaviour?
Gifty Reply
patience and meditation
any one ,what is bio psychological model
Bio psychological model means bio means body and psychological means mind so bio psychological model is studies mind and body relationships
daily prayers and daily affirmations and daily excercise
and what is health belief model?
what us psychology
Ndeh Reply
psychology is the study of mind. And also the study of human behavior.
thank you
psychology is the systematic study of human and animal mind and its mental processes.
psychology is the scientific study of the mind and behaviour...And it also includes the study of animals as well as humans.
Psychology is the scientific and systematic study of mental activities, behavior and cognitive process of organism to relationships between it's environment...
What could be some short term and long terms goals one can have,in order to become an education psychologist?
Hibba Reply
Short term: - contact a school psychologist and shadow them for a few days - study and keep up with college coursework - join psychology club/ groups Long term: - transfer to a 4 year university - choose wisely your graduate school - talk to graduates from those schools
thank you Isela Huerta :)
how to recognize the person with psychological disorders?
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Source:  OpenStax, Psychology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11629/1.5
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