<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Created using a WYSIWYG XHTML editor

I originally created the document as an XHTML document using a WYSIWYG XHTML editor that behaves muchlike a word processor. (If you don't know what WYSIWYG means, Google it.) Of course, the document has since undergone quite a lot of editing so the finalXHTML version probably doesn't match the XHTML code in Listing 3.

Transform to CNXML

Later on, I used a Java program of my own design to transform the final XHTML document into anotherflavor of XML known as CNXML for publishing on the Connexions website.

That illustrates another characteristic of XML. Because the formats of certain flavors of XML documentsare well defined, it is often practical to transform them from one flavor to another flavor.

That makes it possible for me to create the document using a program that is very similar to a word processorand then transform the output of that program into a fairly cryptic format that satisfies the publishing requirements of the website.

Your browser is rendering the document

When you accessed the document from the Connexions website, it was transformed back into an XHTML document and sent to yourcomputer.

As you can see in Listing 3, viewing raw XHTML isn't very enjoyable. Fortunately, your browser isacting as a rendering engine to render the raw XHTML text into a much more pleasing presentation format.

Back to the book example

A book that is created and maintained as an XML document could be rendered in a variety of different ways. Whichever way it is rendered, however, it wouldprobably be useful to separate and number the chapters. Therefore, the value of the number attribute could be used by the rendering engine to present the chapter number for a specific rendering.

In some renderings, the number might appear on an otherwise blank page that begins a new chapter. In a different rendering, the chapter number might appearin the upper right or left-hand corner of each page.

Tell me again, what is an element?

As I explained earlier, an element usually consists of a start tag (with optional attributes and namespace information) , an end tag , and the content sandwiched in between as shown earlier in Listing 2.

Elements can be nested

Elements can be nested inside other elements as shown in Listing 4.

Listing 4 . Nested elements.
<book><chapter number="1">Content for Chapter 1</chapter><chapter number="2">Content for Chapter 2</chapter></book>

In Listing 4, two chapter elements are nested inside a book element.

Why does XML use elements?

It is probably fair to say that the element constitutes the fundamental unit of information in an XML document. For example, the element defines the type ofinformation, such as chapter in our book example.

Sandwiched in between the start tag and the end tag of an element, we find the raw information (content) that the XML document is designed to convey. For a text document, you are likely to find a lot of content between the tags. Forexample, in Listing 3, there are several lines of text between the paragraph tags identified by the p and the /p enclosed in angle brackets.

Once again, what is content?

Of the four terms mentioned earlier, (tags, elements, content, and attributes) , content is the easy one. Content is sandwiched in between the start tag and the end tag of an element. Usually the content of the elements containsthe information that the XML document is designed to convey. In other words, this is where we put the information for which the document was created. Thetags and attributes are there to create the structure.

For example, if the XML document is being used for the creation and maintenance of material for a newspaper, the content constitutes the news. Ifthe XML document is being used for the creation and maintenance of a Java programming textbook, the content contains the information about Javaprogramming that we want to convey to the student.

Why do we need structure?

One of the primary objectives of XML is to separate content from presentation. If we insert the raw material as content into a structure definedby the tags, elements, and attributes, then that raw material can be presented in a variety of ways.

Miscellaneous

This section contains a variety of miscellaneous materials.

Housekeeping material
  • Module name: XML - Tags, Elements, Content, and Attributes
  • File: FlexXhtml0082.htm
  • Revised: 12/02/14
Disclaimers:

Financial : Although the Connexions site makes it possible for you to download aPDF file for this module at no charge, and also makes it possiblefor you to purchase a pre-printed version of the PDF file, you should be aware that some of the HTML elements in this module maynot translate well into PDF.

I also want you to know that, I receive no financial compensation from the Connexions website even if you purchase the PDF version ofthe module.

In the past, unknown individuals have copied my modules from cnx.org, converted them to Kindle books, and placed them for sale onAmazon.com showing me as the author. I neither receive compensation for those sales nor do I know who does receive compensation. If youpurchase such a book, please be aware that it is a copy of a module that is freely available on cnx.org and that it was made andpublished without my prior knowledge.

Affiliation : I am a professor of Computer Information Technology at Austin Community College in Austin, TX.

-end-

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
I know this work
salma
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
Abhi
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
hmm
Abhi
is it a question of log
Abhi
🤔.
Abhi
I rally confuse this number And equations too I need exactly help
salma
But this is not salma it's Faiza live in lousvile Ky I garbage this so I am going collage with JCTC that the of the collage thank you my friends
salma
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
hii
Uday
hi
salma
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
QuizOver.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to xml. OpenStax CNX. Dec 02, 2014 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11207/1.18
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Introduction to xml' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask