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On the other hand, as expected, the call to the sum function is shown as failed . As before, both the location and the nature of the failure is explained.

Embedding a test in a docstring

As mentioned earlier , in addition to putting tests in separate text files, you can also embed tests in docstrings.

What is a docstring?

As shown in the earlier module titled Itse1359-1270-Functions , and described more fully in What is a Docstring? , a docstring is a string literal that occurs as the first statement in a module, function, class, or method definition. A docstring is surrounded bytriple quotes.

The module named Py1359_1720_03

This example will perform a test on a simple function named sum in a module named Py1359_1720_03.py as shown in Listing 6 .

Listing 6 . Contents of the file named Py1359_1720_03.py.
""">>>sum(2,3) 6""" def sum(parA,parB):return parA + parB if __name__ == "__main__":import doctest doctest.testmod()

Listing 6 is an update of the earlier module shown in Listing 3 . Test code was embedded in the docstring at the beginning of Listing 6 .

In addition, a special if statement was added at the end of Listing 6 that calls the testmod function of the doctest module. (See the earlier comment regarding the testmod function and the command line shortcut.)

According to The Python Standard Library -- 26.2.1. Simple Usage: Checking Examples in Docstrings , if you include this code at the end of a module, running the module as a script will cause tests that are embedded in docstrings to be executed.

Detailed information on the various options of the testmod function are provided at The Python Standard Library -- 26.2.4. Basic API .

The batch file named Py1359_1720_03

The batch file used to execute the test is shown in Listing 7 .

Listing 7 . Contents of the batch file named Py1359_1720_03.bat.
echo off rem set the pathpath=%path%;"C:\Program Files (x86)\Python34" rem perform the testpython Py1359_1720_03.py -v pause

In this case there was no separate test file. Instead, the python command in Listing 7 executed the module named Py1359_1720_03.py as a script triggering the test to be run as described above .

The output

The -v switch in Listing 7 causes the verbose version of the output to be produced as shown in Figure 4 . Once again, I set the test up in such a way as to cause it to fail for purposes of illustration.

Figure 4 . Output produced by the test embedded in the docstring.
Trying: sum(2,3)Expecting: 6********************************************************************** File "Py1359_1720_03.py", line 4, in __main__Failed example: sum(2,3)Expected: 6Got: 51 items had no tests: __main__.sum********************************************************************** 1 items had failures:1 of 1 in __main__ 1 tests in 2 items.0 passed and 1 failed. ***Test Failed*** 1 failures.

Run the program

I encourage you to copy the code provided in this module. Execute the code and confirm that you get the same results. Experiment with the code,making changes, and observing the results of your changes. Make certain that you can explain why your changes behave as they do.

What's next?

Now that you know some of the mechanics of using doctest , you should study the next module in the collection titled Itse1359-1720r-Review . In addition, you should study some of the many articles andtutorials that are freely available on the web that provide insight into the use of doctest for unit testing. Links to a few of those documents are provided below. You canfind many more with a simple web search.


This section contains a variety of miscellaneous information.

Housekeeping material
  • Module name: Itse1359-1720-Doctest Introduction
  • File: Itse1359-1720.htm
  • Published: 11/10/14
  • Revised: 03/04/15

Financial : Although the Connexions site makes it possible for you to download a PDF file for thismodule at no charge, and also makes it possible for you to purchase a pre-printed version of the PDF file, you should beaware that some of the HTML elements in this module may not translate well into PDF.

I also want you to know that, I receive no financial compensation from the Connexions website even if you purchase the PDF version of the module.

In the past, unknown individuals have copied my modules from cnx.org, converted them to Kindle books, and placed them for sale on Amazon.com showing me as the author. Ineither receive compensation for those sales nor do I know who does receive compensation. If you purchase such a book, please beaware that it is a copy of a module that is freely available on cnx.org and that it was made and published withoutmy prior knowledge.

Affiliation : I am a professor of Computer Information Technology at Austin Community College in Austin, TX.


Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
I know this work
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
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I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
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Commplementary angles
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what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
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Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
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I'm interested in nanotube
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Ramkumar Reply
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what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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